THE ANALECTS (Sayings)
1.   The Master said, "Is it not pleasant to learn with a
constant perseverance and application?
"Is it not delightful to have friends coming from distant
"Is he not a man of complete virtue, who feels no
discomposure though men may take no note of him?"
2.   The philosopher Yu said, "They are few who, being
filial and fraternal, are fond of offending against their
superiors. There have been none, who, not liking to offend
against their superiors, have been fond of stirring up confusion.
"The superior man bends his attention to what is radical.
That being established, all practical courses naturally grow up.
Filial piety and fraternal submission, —are they not the root of
all benevolent actions?"
3.   The Master said, "Fine words and an insinuating
appearance are seldom associated with true virtue."
4.   The philosopher Tsang said, "I daily examine myself on
three points: —whether, in transacting business for others, I
may have been not faithful; —whether, in intercourse with
friends, I may have been not sincere; —whether I may have not
mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher."
5.   The Master said, "To rule a country of a thousand
chariots, there must be reverent attention to business, and
sincerity; economy in expenditure, and love for men; and the
employment of the people at the proper seasons."
6.   The Master said, "A youth, when at home, should be
filial, and, abroad, respectful to his elders. He should be
earnest and truthful. He should overflow in love to all, and
cultivate the friendship of the good. When he has time and
opportunity, after the performance of these things, he should
employ them in polite studies."
7.   Tsze-hsia said, "If a man withdraws his mind from the
love of beauty, and applies it as sincerely to the love of the
virtuous; if, in serving his parents, he can exert his utmost
strength; if, in serving his prince, he can devote his life; if,
in his intercourse with his friends, his words are sincere: —although
men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that he has.
8.   The Master said, "If the scholar be not grave, he will
not call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid.
"Hold faithfulness and sincerity as first principles.
"Have no friends not equal to yourself.
"When you have faults, do not fear to abandon them."
9.   The philosopher Tsang said, "Let there be a careful
attention to perform the funeral rites to parents, and let them
be followed when long gone with the ceremonies of sacrifice; —then
the virtue of the people will resume its proper excellence."
10.   Tsze-ch'in asked Tsze-kung saying, "When our master
comes to any country, he does not fail to learn all about its
government. Does he ask his information? or is it given to him?"
Tsze-kung said, "Our master is benign, upright,
courteous, temperate, and complaisant and thus he gets his
information. The master's mode of asking information, —is it not
different from that of other men?"
11.   The Master said, "While a man's father is alive, look
at the bent of his will; when his father is dead, look at his
conduct. If for three years he does not alter from the way of his
father, he may be called filial."
12.   The philosopher Yu said, "In practicing the rules of
propriety, a natural ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed
by the ancient kings, this is the excellent quality, and in
things small and great we follow them.
"Yet it is not to be observed in all cases. If one,
knowing how such ease should be prized, manifests it, without
regulating it by the rules of propriety, this likewise is not to
13.   The philosopher Yu said, "When agreements are made
according to what is right, what is spoken can be made good. When
respect is shown according to what is proper, one keeps far from
shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a man leans are
proper persons to be intimate with, he can make them his guides
14.   The Master said, "He who aims to be a man of complete
virtue in his food does not seek to gratify his appetite, nor in
his dwelling place does he seek the appliances of ease; he is
earnest in what he is doing, and careful in his speech; he
frequents the company of men of principle that he may be
rectified: —such a person may be said indeed to love to learn."
15.   Tsze-kung said, "What do you pronounce concerning the
poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who is not
proud?" The Master replied, "They will do; but they are
not equal to him, who, though poor, is yet cheerful, and to him,
who, though rich, loves the rules of propriety."
Tsze-kung replied, "It is said in the Book of Poetry, 'As
you cut and then file, as you carve and then polish.' —The
meaning is the same, I apprehend, as that which you have just
The Master said, "With one like Ts'ze, I can begin to
talk about the odes. I told him one point, and he knew its proper
16.   The Master said, "I will not be afflicted at men's
not knowing me; I will be afflicted that I do not know men."