THE ANALECTS (Sayings)
1.   The Master said, "It is virtuous manners which
constitute the excellence of a neighborhood. If a man in
selecting a residence do not fix on one where such prevail, how
can he be wise?"
2.   The Master said, "Those who are without virtue cannot
abide long either in a condition of poverty and hardship, or in a
condition of enjoyment. The virtuous rest in virtue; the wise
3.   The Master said, "It is only the truly virtuous man,
who can love, or who can hate, others."
4.   The Master said, "If the will be set on virtue, there
will be no practice of wickedness."
5.   The Master said, "Riches and honors are what men
desire. If they cannot be obtained in the proper way, they should
not be held. Poverty and meanness are what men dislike. If they
cannot be avoided in the proper way, they should not be avoided.
"If a superior man abandon virtue, how can he fulfill the
requirements of that name?
"The superior man does not, even for the space of a
single meal, act contrary to virtue. In moments of haste, he
cleaves to it. In seasons of danger, he cleaves to it."
6.   The Master said, "I have not seen a person who loved
virtue, or one who hated what was not virtuous. He who loved
virtue, would esteem nothing above it. He who hated what is not
virtuous, would practice virtue in such a way that he would not
allow anything that is not virtuous to approach his person.
"Is any one able for one day to apply his strength to
virtue? I have not seen the case in which his strength would be
"Should there possibly be any such case, I have not seen
7.   The Master said, "The faults of men are characteristic
of the class to which they belong. By observing a man's faults,
it may be known that he is virtuous."
8.   The Master said, "If a man in the morning hear the
right way, he may die in the evening hear regret."
9.   The Master said, "A scholar, whose mind is set on
truth, and who is ashamed of bad clothes and bad food, is not fit
to be discoursed with."
10.   The Master said, "The superior man, in the world,
does not set his mind either for anything, or against anything;
what is right he will follow."
11.   The Master said, "The superior man thinks of virtue;
the small man thinks of comfort. The superior man thinks of the
sanctions of law; the small man thinks of favors which he may
12.   The Master said: "He who acts with a constant view to
his own advantage will be much murmured against."
13.   The Master said, "If a prince is able to govern his
kingdom with the complaisance proper to the rules of propriety,
what difficulty will he have? If he cannot govern it with that
complaisance, what has he to do with the rules of propriety?"
14.   The Master said, "A man should say, I am not
concerned that I have no place, I am concerned how I may fit
myself for one. I am not concerned that I am not known, I seek to
be worthy to be known."
15.   The Master said, "Shan, my doctrine is that of an all-pervading
unity." The disciple Tsang replied, "Yes."
The Master went out, and the other disciples asked, saying,
"What do his words mean?" Tsang said, "The
doctrine of our master is to be true to the principles—of our
nature and the benevolent exercise of them to others,—this and
16.   The Master said, "The mind of the superior man is
conversant with righteousness; the mind of the mean man is
conversant with gain."
17.   The Master said, "When we see men of worth, we should
think of equaling them; when we see men of a contrary character,
we should turn inwards and examine ourselves."
18.   The Master said, "In serving his parents, a son may
remonstrate with them, but gently; when he sees that they do not
incline to follow his advice, he shows an increased degree of
reverence, but does not abandon his purpose; and should they
punish him, he does not allow himself to murmur."
19.   The Master said, "While his parents are alive, the
son may not go abroad to a distance. If he does go abroad, he
must have a fixed place to which he goes."
20.   The Master said, "If the son for three years does not
alter from the way of his father, he may be called filial."
21.   The Master said, "The years of parents may by no
means not be kept in the memory, as an occasion at once for joy
and for fear."
22.   The Master said, "The reason why the ancients did not
readily give utterance to their words, was that they feared lest
their actions should not come up to them."
23.   The Master said, "The cautious seldom err."
24.   The Master said, "The superior man wishes to be slow
in his speech and earnest in his conduct."
25.   The Master said, "Virtue is not left to stand alone.
He who practices it will have neighbors."
26.   Tsze-yu said, "In serving a prince, frequent
remonstrances lead to disgrace. Between friends, frequent
reproofs make the friendship distant."