THE ANALECTS (Sayings)
1.   Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and
as if he were not able to speak.
When he was in the prince's ancestral temple, or in the court,
he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.
When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great
officers of the lower grade, he spoke freely, but in a
straightforward manner; in speaking with those of the higher
grade, he did so blandly, but precisely.
When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful
uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.
2.   When the prince called him to employ him in the reception
of a visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to
move forward with difficulty.
He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood,
moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but
keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted.
He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird.
When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince,
"The visitor is not turning round any more."
3.   When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his
body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him.
When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the
gateway; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the
When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his
countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him,
and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter them.
He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both
his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if
he dared not breathe.
When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had
descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a
satisfied look. When he had got the bottom of the steps, he
advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on
occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.
4.   When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to
bend his body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did
not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making a
bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to another.
His countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he
dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the
In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore
a placid appearance.
At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.
5.   The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce
color, in the ornaments of his dress.
Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or
In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or
fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment.
Over lamb's fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn's fur
one of white; and over fox's fur one of yellow.
The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve
He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his
When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the
When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the
His undergarment, except when it was required to be of the
curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below.
He did not wear lamb's fur or a black cap on a visit of
On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and
presented himself at court.
When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes
brightly clean and made of linen cloth.
6.   When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and
also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.
He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to
have his mince meat cut quite small.
He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and
turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat
what was discolored, or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything
which was ill-cooked, or was not in season.
He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was
served without its proper sauce.
Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not
allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It
was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he
did not allow himself to be confused by it.
He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market.
He was never without ginger when he ate. He did not eat much.
When he had been assisting at the prince's sacrifice, he did
not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his
family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over
three days, people could not eat it.
When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not
Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he
would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful
7.   If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.
When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who
carried staffs going out, he also went out immediately after.
8.   When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to
drive away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and
stood on the eastern steps.
9.   When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in
another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.
10.   Chi K'ang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed
and received it, saying, "I do not know it. I dare not taste
11.   The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his
return he said, "Has any man been hurt?" He did not ask
about the horses.
12.   When the prince presented him with food, he would adjust
his mat, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When
the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have it
cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. When the
prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it alive.
When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the
entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted
13.   When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had
his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him,
and drew his girdle across them.
14.   When the prince's order called him, without waiting for
his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.
15.   When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he
asked about everything.
16.   When any of his friends died, if he had no relations
offices, he would say, "I will bury him."
When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a
carriage and horses, he did not bow.
The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of
17.   In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not
put on any formal deportment.
18.   When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might
be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any
one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he
might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious
To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of
his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the
tables of population.
When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance
of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and
On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would
19.   When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand
straight, holding the cord.
When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite
round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.
20.   Seeing the group approaching, the bird instantly rises. It
flies around, and by and by settles.
The Master said, "There is the hen-pheasant on the hill
bridge. It knows how to preserve itself!" Tsze-lu made a
motion to catch it. Thrice it cried and then flew away.