THE ANALECTS (Sayings)
1.   The head of the Chi family was going to attack Chwan-yu.
Zan Yu and Chi-lu had an interview with Confucius, and said,
"Our chief, Chil is going to commence operations against
Confucius said, "Ch'iu, is it not you who are in fault
"Now, in regard to Chwan-yu, long ago, a former king
appointed its ruler to preside over the sacrifices to the eastern
Mang; moreover, it is in the midst of the territory of our state;
and its ruler is a minister in direct connection with the
sovereign: What has your chief to do with attacking it?"
Zan Yu said, "Our master wishes the thing; neither of us
two ministers wishes it."
Confucius said, "Ch'iu, there are the words of Chau Zan,
—'When he can put forth his ability, he takes his place in the
ranks of office; when he finds himself unable to do so, he
retires from it. How can he be used as a guide to a blind man,
who does not support him when tottering, nor raise him up when
"And further, you speak wrongly. When a tiger or
rhinoceros escapes from his cage; when a tortoise or piece of
jade is injured in its repository: —whose is the fault?"
Zan Yu said, "But at present, Chwan-yu is strong and near
to Pi; if our chief do not now take it, it will hereafter be a
sorrow to his descendants."
Confucius said. "Ch'iu, the superior man hates those
declining to say, 'I want such and such a thing,' and framing
explanations for their conduct.
"I have heard that rulers of states and chiefs of
families are not troubled lest their people should be few, but
are troubled lest they should not keep their several places; that
they are not troubled with fears of poverty, but are troubled
with fears of a want of contented repose among the people in
their several places. For when the people keep their several
places, there will be no poverty; when harmony prevails, there
will be no scarcity of people; and when there is such a contented
repose, there will be no rebellious upsettings.
"So it is. —Therefore, if remoter people are not
submissive, all the influences of civil culture and virtue are to
be cultivated to attract them to be so; and when they have been
so attracted, they must be made contented and tranquil.
"Now, here are you, Yu and Ch'iu, assisting your chief.
Remoter people are not submissive, and, with your help, he cannot
attract them to him. In his own territory there are divisions and
downfalls, leavings and separations, and, with your help, he
cannot preserve it.
"And yet he is planning these hostile movements within
the state. —I am afraid that the sorrow of the Chi-sun family
will not be on account of Chwan-yu, but will be found within the
screen of their own court."
2.   Confucius said, "When good government prevails in the
empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions
proceed from the son of Heaven. When bad government prevails in
the empire, ceremonies, music, and punitive military expeditions
proceed from the princes. When these things proceed from the
princes, as a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not
lose their power in ten generations. When they proceed from the
great officers of the princes, as a rule, the case will be few in
which they do not lose their power in five generations. When the
subsidiary ministers of the great officers hold in their grasp
the orders of the state, as a rule the cases will be few in which
they do not lose their power in three generations.
"When right principles prevail in the kingdom, government
will not be in the hands of the great officers.
"When right principles prevail in the kingdom, there will
be no discussions among the common people."
3.   Confucius said, "The revenue of the state has left the
ducal house now for five generations. The government has been in
the hands of the great officers for four generations. On this
account, the descendants of the three Hwan are much reduced."
4.   Confucius said, "There are three friendships which are
advantageous, and three which are injurious. Friendship with the
uplight; friendship with the sincere; and friendship with the man
of much observation: —these are advantageous. Friendship with
the man of specious airs; friendship with the insinuatingly soft;
and friendship with the glib-tongued: —these are injurious."
5.   Confucius said, "There are three things men find
enjoyment in which are advantageous, and three things they find
enjoyment in which are injurious. To find enjoyment in the
discriminating study of ceremonies and music; to find enjoyment
in speaking of the goodness of others; to find enjoyment in
having many worthy friends: —these are advantageous. To find
enjoyment in extravagant pleasures; to find enjoyment in idleness
and sauntering; to find enjoyment in the pleasures of feasting:
—these are injurious."
6.   Confucius said, "There are three errors to which they
who stand in the presence of a man of virtue and station are
liable. They may speak when it does not come to them to speak; —this
is called rashness. They may not speak when it comes to them to
speak; —this is called concealment. They may speak without
looking at the countenance of their superior; —this is called
7.   Confucius said, "There are three things which the
superior man guards against. In youth, when the physical powers
are not yet settled, he guards against lust. When he is strong
and the physical powers are full of vigor, he guards against
quarrelsomeness. When he is old, and the animal powers are
decayed, he guards against covetousness."
8.   Confucius said, "There are three things of which the
superior man stands in awe. He stands in awe of the ordinances of
Heaven. He stands in awe of great men. He stands in awe of the
words of sages.
"The mean man does not know the ordinances of Heaven, and
consequently does not stand in awe of them. He is disrespectful
to great men. He makes sport of the words of sages."
9.   Confucius said, "Those who are born with the
possession of knowledge are the highest class of men. Those who
learn, and so readily get possession of knowledge, are the next.
Those who are dull and stupid, and yet compass the learning, are
another class next to these. As to those who are dull and stupid
and yet do not learn; —they are the lowest of the people."
10.   Confucius said, "The superior man has nine things
which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. In
regard to the use of his eyes, he is anxious to see clearly. In
regard to the use of his ears, he is anxious to hear distinctly.
In regard to his countenance, he is anxious that it should be
benign. In regard to his demeanor, he is anxious that it should
be respectful. In regard to his speech, he is anxious that it
should be sincere. In regard to his doing of business, he is
anxious that it should be reverently careful. In regard to what
he doubts about, he is anxious to question others. When he is
angry, he thinks of the difficulties his anger may involve him in.
When he sees gain to be got, he thinks of righteousness."
11.   Confucius said, "Contemplating good, and pursuing it,
as if they could not reach it; contemplating evil! and shrinking
from it, as they would from thrusting the hand into boiling water:
—I have seen such men, as I have heard such words.
"Living in retirement to study their aims, and practicing
righteousness to carry out their principles: —I have heard these
words, but I have not seen such men."
12.   The Duke Ching of Ch'i had a thousand teams, each of four
horses, but on the day of his death, the people did not praise
him for a single virtue. Po-i and Shu-ch'i died of hunger at the
foot of the Shau-yang mountains, and the people, down to the
present time, praise them.
"Is not that saying illustrated by this?"
13.   Ch'an K'ang asked Po-yu, saying, "Have you heard any
lessons from your father different from what we have all heard?"
Po-yu replied, "No. He was standing alone once, when I
passed below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me, 'Have you
learned the Odes?' On my replying 'Not yet,' he added, If you do
not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse with.' I
retired and studied the Odes.
"Another day, he was in the same way standing alone, when
I passed by below the hall with hasty steps, and said to me,
'Have you learned the rules of Propriety?' On my replying 'Not
yet,' he added, 'If you do not learn the rules of Propriety, your
character cannot be established.' I then retired, and learned the
rules of Propriety.
"I have heard only these two things from him."
Ch'ang K'ang retired, and, quite delighted, said, "I
asked one thing, and I have got three things. I have heard about
the Odes. I have heard about the rules of Propriety. I have also
heard that the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards
14.   The wife of the prince of a state is called by him Fu Zan.
She calls herself Hsiao T'ung. The people of the state call her
Chun Fu Zan, and, to the people of other states, they call her
K'wa Hsiao Chun. The people of other states also call her Chun Fu