THE ANALECTS (Sayings)
1.   The Viscount of Wei withdrew from the court. The Viscount
of Chi became a slave to Chau. Pi-kan remonstrated with him and
Confucius said, "The Yin dynasty possessed these three
men of virtue."
2.   Hui of Liu-hsia, being chief criminal judge, was thrice
dismissed from his office. Some one said to him, "Is it not
yet time for you, sir, to leave this?" He replied, "Serving
men in an upright way, where shall I go to, and not experience
such a thrice-repeated dismissal? If I choose to serve men in a
crooked way, what necessity is there for me to leave the country
of my parents?"
3.   The duke Ching of Ch'i, with reference to the manner in
which he should treat Confucius, said, "I cannot treat him
as I would the chief of the Chi family. I will treat him in a
manner between that accorded to the chief of the Chil and that
given to the chief of the Mang family." He also said, "I
am old; I cannot use his doctrines." Confucius took his
4.   The people of Ch'i sent to Lu a present of female
musicians, which Chi Hwan received, and for three days no court
was held. Confucius took his departure.
5.   The madman of Ch'u, Chieh-yu, passed by Confucius, singing
and saying, "O FANG! O FANG! How is your virtue degenerated!
As to the past, reproof is useless; but the future may still be
provided against. Give up your vain pursuit. Give up your vain
pursuit. Peril awaits those who now engage in affairs of
Confucius alighted and wished to converse with him, but Chieh-yu
hastened away, so that he could not talk with him.
6.   Ch'ang-tsu and Chieh-ni were at work in the field together,
when Confucius passed by them, and sent Tsze-lu to inquire for
Ch'ang-tsu said, "Who is he that holds the reins in the
carriage there?" Tsze-lu told him, "It is K'ung Ch'iu.',
"Is it not K'ung of Lu?" asked he. "Yes," was
the reply, to which the other rejoined, "He knows the ford."
Tsze-lu then inquired of Chieh-ni, who said to him, "Who
are you, sir?" He answered, "I am Chung Yu."
"Are you not the disciple of K'ung Ch'iu of Lu?" asked
the other. "I am," replied he, and then Chieh-ni said
to him, "Disorder, like a swelling flood, spreads over the
whole empire, and who is he that will change its state for you?
Rather than follow one who merely withdraws from this one and
that one, had you not better follow those who have withdrawn from
the world altogether?" With this he fell to covering up the
seed, and proceeded with his work, without stopping.
Tsze-lu went and reported their remarks, when the Master
observed with a sigh, "It is impossible to associate with
birds and beasts, as if they were the same with us. If I
associate not with these people, —with mankind, —with whom
shall I associate? If right principles prevailed through the
empire, there would be no use for me to change its state."
7.   Tsze-lu, following the Master, happened to fall behind,
when he met an old man, carrying across his shoulder on a staff a
basket for weeds. Tsze-lu said to him, "Have you seen my
master, sir?" The old man replied, "Your four limbs are
unaccustomed to toil; you cannot distinguish the five kinds of
grain: —who is your master?" With this, he planted his
staff in the ground, and proceeded to weed.
Tsze-lu joined his hands across his breast, and stood before
The old man kept Tsze-lu to pass the night in his house,
killed a fowl, prepared millet, and feasted him. He also
introduced to him his two sons.
Next day, Tsze-lu went on his way, and reported his adventure.
The Master said, "He is a recluse," and sent Tsze-lu
back to see him again, but when he got to the place, the old man
Tsze-lu then said to the family, "Not to take office is
not righteous. If the relations between old and young may not be
neglected, how is it that he sets aside the duties that should be
observed between sovereign and minister? Wishing to maintain his
personal purity, he allows that great relation to come to
confusion. A superior man takes office, and performs the
righteous duties belonging to it. As to the failure of right
principles to make progress, he is aware of that."
8.   The men who have retired to privacy from the world have
been Po-i, Shu-ch'i, Yuchung, I-yi, Chu-chang, Hui of Liu-hsia,
The Master said, "Refusing to surrender their wills, or
to submit to any taint in their persons; such, I think, were Po-i
"It may be said of Hui of Liu-hsia! and of Shaolien, that
they surrendered their wills, and submitted to taint in their
persons, but their words corresponded with reason, and their
actions were such as men are anxious to see. This is all that is
to be remarked in them.
"It may be said of Yu-chung and I-yi, that, while they
hid themselves in their seclusion, they gave a license to their
words; but in their persons, they succeeded in preserving their
purity, and, in their retirement, they acted according to the
exigency of the times.
"I am different from all these. I have no course for
which I am predetermined, and no course against which I am
9.   The grand music master, Chih, went to Ch'i.
Kan, the master of the band at the second meal, went to Ch'u.
Liao, the band master at the third meal, went to Ts'ai. Chueh,
the band master at the fourth meal, went to Ch'in.
Fang-shu, the drum master, withdrew to the north of the river.
Wu, the master of the hand drum, withdrew to the Han.
Yang, the assistant music master, and Hsiang, master of the
musical stone, withdrew to an island in the sea.
10.   The duke of Chau addressed his son, the duke of Lu,
saying, "The virtuous prince does not neglect his relations.
He does not cause the great ministers to repine at his not
employing them. Without some great cause, he does not dismiss
from their offices the members of old families. He does not seek
in one man talents for every employment."
11.   To Chau belonged the eight officers, Po-ta, Po-kwo, Chung-tu,
Chung-hwu, Shu-ya, Shuhsia, Chi-sui, and Chi-kwa.