Phaedo (360 B.C.)
translated by Benjamin Jowett
PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE:
PHAEDO, who is the narrator of the dialogue to ECHECRATES of
ATTENDANT OF THE PRISON;
SCENE: The Prison of Socrates
PLACE OF THE NARRATION: Phlius
[Echecrates] Were you yourself, Phaedo, in the prison with
Socrates on the day when he drank the poison?
[Phaedo] Yes, Echecrates, I was.
[Ech.] I wish that you would tell me about his death. What did he
say in his last hours? We were informed that he died by taking
poison, but no one knew anything more; for no Phliasian ever goes
to Athens now, and a long time has elapsed since any Athenian
found his way to Phlius, and therefore we had no clear account.
[Phaed.] Did you not hear of the proceedings at the trial?
[Ech.] Yes; someone told us about the trial, and we could not
understand why, having been condemned, he was put to death, as
appeared, not at the time, but long afterwards. What was the
reason of this?
[Phaed.] An accident, Echecrates. The reason was that the stern
of the ship which the Athenians send to Delos happened to have
been crowned on the day before he was tried.
[Ech.] What is this ship?
[Phaed.] This is the ship in which, as the Athenians say, Theseus
went to Crete when he took with him the fourteen youths, and was
the saviour of them and of himself. And they were said to have
vowed to Apollo at the time, that if they were saved they would
make an annual pilgrimage to Delos. Now this custom still
continues, and the whole period of the voyage to and from Delos,
beginning when the priest of Apollo crowns the stern of the ship,
is a holy season, during which the city is not allowed to be
polluted by public executions; and often, when the vessel is
detained by adverse winds, there may be a very considerable delay.
As I was saying, the ship was crowned on the day before the
trial, and this was the reason why Socrates lay in prison and was
not put to death until long after he was condemned.
[Ech.] What was the manner of his death, Phaedo? What was said or
done? And which of his friends had he with him? Or were they not
allowed by the authorities to be present? And did he die alone?
[Phaed.] No; there were several of his friends with him.
[Ech.] If you have nothing to do, I wish that you would tell me
what passed, as exactly as you can.
[Phaed.] I have nothing to do, and will try to gratify your wish.
For to me, too, there is no greater pleasure than to have
Socrates brought to my recollection, whether I speak myself or
hear another speak of him.
[Ech.] You will have listeners who are of the same mind with you,
and I hope that you will be as exact as you can.
[Phaed.] I remember the strange feeling which came over me at
being with him. For I could hardly believe that I was present at
the death of a friend, and therefore I did not pity him,
Echecrates; his mien and his language were so noble and fearless
in the hour of death that to me he appeared blessed. I thought
that in going to the other world he could not be without a divine
call, and that he would be happy, if any man ever was, when he
arrived there, and therefore I did not pity him as might seem
natural at such a time. But neither could I feel the pleasure
which I usually felt in philosophical discourse (for philosophy
was the theme of which we spoke). I was pleased, and I was also
pained, because I knew that he was soon to die, and this strange
mixture of feeling was shared by us all; we were laughing and
weeping by turns, especially the excitable Apollodorus-you know
the sort of man?
[Phaed.] He was quite overcome; and I myself and all of us were
[Ech.] Who were present?
[Phaed.] Of native Athenians there were, besides Apollodorus,
Critobulus and his father Crito, Hermogenes, Epigenes, Aeschines,
and Antisthenes; likewise Ctesippus of the deme of Paeania,
Menexenus, and some others; but Plato, if I am not mistaken, was
[Ech.] Were there any strangers?
[Phaed.] Yes, there were; Simmias the Theban, and Cebes, and
Phaedondes; Euclid and Terpison, who came from Megara.
[Ech.] And was Aristippus there, and Cleombrotus?
[Phaed.] No, they were said to be in Aegina.
[Ech.] Anyone else?
[Phaed.] I think that these were about all.
[Ech.] And what was the discourse of which you spoke?
[Phaed.] I will begin at the beginning, and endeavor to repeat
the entire conversation. You must understand that we had been
previously in the habit of assembling early in the morning at the
court in which the trial was held, and which is not far from the
prison. There we remained talking with one another until the
opening of the prison doors (for they were not opened very early),
and then went in and generally passed the day with Socrates. On
the last morning the meeting was earlier than usual; this was
owing to our having heard on the previous evening that the sacred
ship had arrived from Delos, and therefore we agreed to meet very
early at the accustomed place. On our going to the prison, the
jailer who answered the door, instead of admitting us, came out
and bade us wait and he would call us. "For the Eleven,"
he said, "are now with Socrates; they are taking off his
chains, and giving orders that he is to die to-day." He soon
returned and said that we might come in. On entering we found
Socrates just released from chains, and Xanthippe, whom you know,
sitting by him, and holding his child in her arms. When she saw
us she uttered a cry and said, as women will: "O Socrates,
this is the last time that either you will converse with your
friends, or they with you." Socrates turned to Crito and
said: "Crito, let someone take her home." Some of
Crito's people accordingly led her away, crying out and beating
herself. And when she was gone, Socrates, sitting up on the
couch, began to bend and rub his leg, saying, as he rubbed:
"How singular is the thing called pleasure, and how
curiously related to pain, which might be thought to be the
opposite of it; for they never come to a man together, and yet he
who pursues either of them is generally compelled to take the
other. They are two, and yet they grow together out of one head
or stem; and I cannot help thinking that if Aesop had noticed
them, he would have made a fable about God trying to reconcile
their strife, and when he could not, he fastened their heads
together; and this is the reason why when one comes the other
follows, as I find in my own case pleasure comes following after
the pain in my leg, which was caused by the chain."
Upon this Cebes said: I am very glad indeed, Socrates, that you
mentioned the name of Aesop. For that reminds me of a question
which has been asked by others, and was asked of me only the day
before yesterday by Evenus the poet, and as he will be sure to
ask again, you may as well tell me what I should say to him, if
you would like him to have an answer. He wanted to know why you
who never before wrote a line of poetry, now that you are in
prison are putting Aesop into verse, and also composing that hymn
in honor of Apollo.
Tell him, Cebes, he replied, that I had no idea of rivalling him
or his poems; which is the truth, for I knew that I could not do
that. But I wanted to see whether I could purge away a scruple
which I felt about certain dreams. In the course of my life I
have often had intimations in dreams "that I should make
music." The same dream came to me sometimes in one form, and
sometimes in another, but always saying the same or nearly the
same words: Make and cultivate music, said the dream. And
hitherto I had imagined that this was only intended to exhort and
encourage me in the study of philosophy, which has always been
the pursuit of my life, and is the noblest and best of music. The
dream was bidding me to do what I was already doing, in the same
way that the competitor in a race is bidden by the spectators to
run when he is already running. But I was not certain of this, as
the dream might have meant music in the popular sense of the
word, and being under sentence of death, and the festival giving
me a respite, I thought that I should be safer if I satisfied the
scruple, and, in obedience to the dream, composed a few verses
before I departed. And first I made a hymn in honor of the god of
the festival, and then considering that a poet, if he is really
to be a poet or maker, should not only put words together but
make stories, and as I have no invention, I took some fables of
esop, which I had ready at hand and knew, and turned them into
verse. Tell Evenus this, and bid him be of good cheer; that I
would have him come after me if he be a wise man, and not tarry;
and that to-day I am likely to be going, for the Athenians say
that I must.
Simmias said: What a message for such a man! having been a
frequent companion of his, I should say that, as far as I know
him, he will never take your advice unless he is obliged.
Why, said Socrates,-is not Evenus a philosopher?
I think that he is, said Simmias.
Then he, or any man who has the spirit of philosophy, will be
willing to die, though he will not take his own life, for that is
held not to be right.
Here he changed his position, and put his legs off the couch on
to the ground, and during the rest of the conversation he
Why do you say, inquired Cebes, that a man ought not to take his
own life, but that the philosopher will be ready to follow the
Socrates replied: And have you, Cebes and Simmias, who are
acquainted with Philolaus, never heard him speak of this?
I never understood him, Socrates.
My words, too, are only an echo; but I am very willing to say
what I have heard: and indeed, as I am going to another place, I
ought to be thinking and talking of the nature of the pilgrimage
which I am about to make. What can I do better in the interval
between this and the setting of the sun?
Then tell me, Socrates, why is suicide held not to be right? as I
have certainly heard Philolaus affirm when he was staying with us
at Thebes: and there are others who say the same, although none
of them has ever made me understand him.
But do your best, replied Socrates, and the day may come when you
will understand. I suppose that you wonder why, as most things
which are evil may be accidentally good, this is to be the only
exception (for may not death, too, be better than life in some
cases?), and why, when a man is better dead, he is not permitted
to be his own benefactor, but must wait for the hand of another.
By Jupiter! yes, indeed, said Cebes, laughing, and speaking in
his native Doric.
I admit the appearance of inconsistency, replied Socrates, but
there may not be any real inconsistency after all in this. There
is a doctrine uttered in secret that man is a prisoner who has no
right to open the door of his prison and run away; this is a
great mystery which I do not quite understand. Yet I, too,
believe that the gods are our guardians, and that we are a
possession of theirs. Do you not agree?
Yes, I agree to that, said Cebes.
And if one of your own possessions, an ox or an ass, for example
took the liberty of putting himself out of the way when you had
given no intimation of your wish that he should die, would you
not be angry with him, and would you not punish him if you could?
Certainly, replied Cebes.
Then there may be reason in saying that a man should wait, and
not take his own life until God summons him, as he is now
Yes, Socrates, said Cebes, there is surely reason in that. And
yet how can you reconcile this seemingly true belief that God is
our guardian and we his possessions, with that willingness to die
which we were attributing to the philosopher? That the wisest of
men should be willing to leave this service in which they are
ruled by the gods who are the best of rulers is not reasonable,
for surely no wise man thinks that when set at liberty he can
take better care of himself than the gods take of him. A fool may
perhaps think this-he may argue that he had better run away from
his master, not considering that his duty is to remain to the
end, and not to run away from the good, and that there is no
sense in his running away. But the wise man will want to be ever
with him who is better than himself. Now this, Socrates, is the
reverse of what was just now said; for upon this view the wise
man should sorrow and the fool rejoice at passing out of life.
The earnestness of Cebes seemed to please Socrates. Here, said
he, turning to us, is a man who is always inquiring, and is not
to be convinced all in a moment, nor by every argument.
And in this case, added Simmias, his objection does appear to me
to have some force. For what can be the meaning of a truly wise
man wanting to fly away and lightly leave a master who is better
than himself? And I rather imagine that Cebes is referring to
you; he thinks that you are too ready to leave us, and too ready
to leave the gods who, as you acknowledge, are our good rulers.
Yes, replied Socrates; there is reason in that. And this
indictment you think that I ought to answer as if I were in
That is what we should like, said Simmias.
Then I must try to make a better impression upon you than I did
when defending myself before the judges. For I am quite ready to
acknowledge, Simmias and Cebes, that I ought to be grieved at
death, if I were not persuaded that I am going to other gods who
are wise and good (of this I am as certain as I can be of
anything of the sort) and to men departed (though I am not so
certain of this), who are better than those whom I leave behind;
and therefore I do not grieve as I might have done, for I have
good hope that there is yet something remaining for the dead,
and, as has been said of old, some far better thing for the good
than for the evil.
But do you mean to take away your thoughts with you, Socrates?
said Simmias. Will you not communicate them to us?-the benefit is
one in which we too may hope to share. Moreover, if you succeed
in convincing us, that will be an answer to the charge against
I will do my best, replied Socrates. But you must first let me
hear what Crito wants; he was going to say something to me.
Only this, Socrates, replied Crito: the attendant who is to give
you the poison has been telling me that you are not to talk much,
and he wants me to let you know this; for that by talking heat is
increased, and this interferes with the action of the poison;
those who excite themselves are sometimes obliged to drink the
poison two or three times.
Then, said Socrates, let him mind his business and be prepared to
give the poison two or three times, if necessary; that is all.
I was almost certain that you would say that, replied Crito; but
I was obliged to satisfy him.
Never mind him, he said.
And now I will make answer to you, O my judges, and show that he
who has lived as a true philosopher has reason to be of good
cheer when he is about to die, and that after death he may hope
to receive the greatest good in the other world. And how this may
be, Simmias and Cebes, I will endeavor to explain. For I deem
that the true disciple of philosophy is likely to be
misunderstood by other men; they do not perceive that he is ever
pursuing death and dying; and if this is true, why, having had
the desire of death all his life long, should he repine at the
arrival of that which he has been always pursuing and desiring?
Simmias laughed and said: Though not in a laughing humor, I swear
that I cannot help laughing when I think what the wicked world
will say when they hear this. They will say that this is very
true, and our people at home will agree with them in saying that
the life which philosophers desire is truly death, and that they
have found them out to be deserving of the death which they
And they are right, Simmias, in saying this, with the exception
of the words "They have found them out"; for they have
not found out what is the nature of this death which the true
philosopher desires, or how he deserves or desires death. But let
us leave them and have a word with ourselves: Do we believe that
there is such a thing as death?
To be sure, replied Simmias.
And is this anything but the separation of soul and body? And
being dead is the attainment of this separation; when the soul
exists in herself, and is parted from the body and the body is
parted from the soul-that is death?
Exactly: that and nothing else, he replied.
And what do you say of another question, my friend, about which I
should like to have your opinion, and the answer to which will
probably throw light on our present inquiry: Do you think that
the philosopher ought to care about the pleasures-if they are to
be called pleasures-of eating and drinking?
Certainly not, answered Simmias.
And what do you say of the pleasures of love-should he care about
By no means.
And will he think much of the other ways of indulging the body-for
example, the acquisition of costly raiment, or sandals, or other
adornments of the body? Instead of caring about them, does he not
rather despise anything more than nature needs? What do you say?
I should say the true philosopher would despise them.
Would you not say that he is entirely concerned with the soul and
not with the body? He would like, as far as he can, to be quit of
the body and turn to the soul.
That is true.
In matters of this sort philosophers, above all other men, may be
observed in every sort of way to dissever the soul from the body.
That is true.
Whereas, Simmias, the rest of the world are of opinion that a
life which has no bodily pleasures and no part in them is not
worth having; but that he who thinks nothing of bodily pleasures
is almost as though he were dead.
That is quite true.
What again shall we say of the actual acquirement of knowledge?-is
the body, if invited to share in the inquiry, a hinderer or a
helper? I mean to say, have sight and hearing any truth in them?
Are they not, as the poets are always telling us, inaccurate
witnesses? and yet, if even they are inaccurate and indistinct,
what is to be said of the other senses?-for you will allow that
they are the best of them?
Certainly, he replied.
Then when does the soul attain truth?-for in attempting to
consider anything in company with the body she is obviously
Yes, that is true.
Then must not existence be revealed to her in thought, if at all?
And thought is best when the mind is gathered into herself and
none of these things trouble her-neither sounds nor sights nor
pain nor any pleasure-when she has as little as possible to do
with the body, and has no bodily sense or feeling, but is
aspiring after being?
That is true.
And in this the philosopher dishonors the body; his soul runs
away from the body and desires to be alone and by herself?
That is true.
Well, but there is another thing, Simmias: Is there or is there
not an absolute justice?
Assuredly there is.
And an absolute beauty and absolute good?
But did you ever behold any of them with your eyes?
Or did you ever reach them with any other bodily sense? (and I
speak not of these alone, but of absolute greatness, and health,
and strength, and of the essence or true nature of everything).
Has the reality of them ever been perceived by you through the
bodily organs? or rather, is not the nearest approach to the
knowledge of their several natures made by him who so orders his
intellectual vision as to have the most exact conception of the
essence of that which he considers?
And he attains to the knowledge of them in their highest purity
who goes to each of them with the mind alone, not allowing when
in the act of thought the intrusion or introduction of sight or
any other sense in the company of reason, but with the very light
of the mind in her clearness penetrates into the very fight of
truth in each; he has got rid, as far as he can, of eyes and ears
and of the whole body, which he conceives of only as a disturbing
element, hindering the soul from the acquisition of knowledge
when in company with her-is not this the sort of man who, if ever
man did, is likely to attain the knowledge of existence?
There is admirable truth in that, Socrates, replied Simmias.
And when they consider all this, must not true philosophers make
a reflection, of which they will speak to one another in such
words as these: We have found, they will say, a path of
speculation which seems to bring us and the argument to the
conclusion that while we are in the body, and while the soul is
mingled with this mass of evil, our desire will not be satisfied,
and our desire is of the truth. For the body is a source of
endless trouble to us by reason of the mere requirement of food;
and also is liable to diseases which overtake and impede us in
the search after truth: and by filling us so full of loves, and
lusts, and fears, and fancies, and idols, and every sort of
folly, prevents our ever having, as people say, so much as a
thought. For whence come wars, and fightings, and factions?
whence but from the body and the lusts of the body? For wars are
occasioned by the love of money, and money has to be acquired for
the sake and in the service of the body; and in consequence of
all these things the time which ought to be given to philosophy
is lost. Moreover, if there is time and an inclination toward
philosophy, yet the body introduces a turmoil and confusion and
fear into the course of speculation, and hinders us from seeing
the truth: and all experience shows that if we would have pure
knowledge of anything we must be quit of the body, and the soul
in herself must behold all things in themselves: then I suppose
that we shall attain that which we desire, and of which we say
that we are lovers, and that is wisdom, not while we live, but
after death, as the argument shows; for if while in company with
the body the soul cannot have pure knowledge, one of two things
seems to follow-either knowledge is not to be attained at all,
or, if at all, after death. For then, and not till then, the soul
will be in herself alone and without the body. In this present
life, I reckon that we make the nearest approach to knowledge
when we have the least possible concern or interest in the body,
and are not saturated with the bodily nature, but remain pure
until the hour when God himself is pleased to release us. And
then the foolishness of the body will be cleared away and we
shall be pure and hold converse with other pure souls, and know
of ourselves the clear light everywhere; and this is surely the
light of truth. For no impure thing is allowed to approach the
pure. These are the sort of words, Simmias, which the true lovers
of wisdom cannot help saying to one another, and thinking. You
will agree with me in that?
But if this is true, O my friend, then there is great hope that,
going whither I go, I shall there be satisfied with that which
has been the chief concern of you and me in our past lives. And
now that the hour of departure is appointed to me, this is the
hope with which I depart, and not I only, but every man who
believes that he has his mind purified.
Certainly, replied Simmias.
And what is purification but the separation of the soul from the
body, as I was saying before; the habit of the soul gathering and
collecting herself into herself, out of all the courses of the
body; the dwelling in her own place alone, as in another life, so
also in this, as far as she can; the release of the soul from the
chains of the body?
Very true, he said.
And what is that which is termed death, but this very separation
and release of the soul from the body?
To be sure, he said.
And the true philosophers, and they only, study and are eager to
release the soul. Is not the separation and release of the soul
from the body their especial study?
That is true.
And as I was saying at first, there would be a ridiculous
contradiction in men studying to live as nearly as they can in a
state of death, and yet repining when death comes.
Then, Simmias, as the true philosophers are ever studying death,
to them, of all men, death is the least terrible. Look at the
matter in this way: how inconsistent of them to have been always
enemies of the body, and wanting to have the soul alone, and when
this is granted to them, to be trembling and repining; instead of
rejoicing at their departing to that place where, when they
arrive, they hope to gain that which in life they loved (and this
was wisdom), and at the same time to be rid of the company of
their enemy. Many a man has been willing to go to the world below
in the hope of seeing there an earthly love, or wife, or son, and
conversing with them. And will he who is a true lover of wisdom,
and is persuaded in like manner that only in the world below he
can worthily enjoy her, still repine at death? Will he not depart
with joy? Surely he will, my friend, if he be a true philosopher.
For he will have a firm conviction that there only, and nowhere
else, he can find wisdom in her purity. And if this be true, he
would be very absurd, as I was saying, if he were to fear death.
He would, indeed, replied Simmias.
And when you see a man who is repining at the approach of death,
is not his reluctance a sufficient proof that he is not a lover
of wisdom, but a lover of the body, and probably at the same time
a lover of either money or power, or both?
That is very true, he replied.
There is a virtue, Simmias, which is named courage. Is not that a
special attribute of the philosopher?
Again, there is temperance. Is not the calm, and control, and
disdain of the passions which even the many call temperance, a
quality belonging only to those who despise the body and live in
That is not to be denied.
For the courage and temperance of other men, if you will consider
them, are really a contradiction.
How is that, Socrates?
Well, he said, you are aware that death is regarded by men in
general as a great evil.
That is true, he said.
And do not courageous men endure death because they are afraid of
yet greater evils?
That is true.
Then all but the philosophers are courageous only from fear, and
because they are afraid; and yet that a man should be courageous
from fear, and because he is a coward, is surely a strange thing.
And are not the temperate exactly in the same case? They are
temperate because they are intemperate-which may seem to be a
contradiction, but is nevertheless the sort of thing which
happens with this foolish temperance. For there are pleasures
which they must have, and are afraid of losing; and therefore
they abstain from one class of pleasures because they are
overcome by another: and whereas intemperance is defined as
"being under the dominion of pleasure," they overcome
only because they are overcome by pleasure. And that is what I
mean by saying that they are temperate through intemperance.
That appears to be true.
Yet the exchange of one fear or pleasure or pain for another fear
or pleasure or pain, which are measured like coins, the greater
with the less, is not the exchange of virtue. O my dear Simmias,
is there not one true coin for which all things ought to
exchange?-and that is wisdom; and only in exchange for this, and
in company with this, is anything truly bought or sold, whether
courage or temperance or justice. And is not all true virtue the
companion of wisdom, no matter what fears or pleasures or other
similar goods or evils may or may not attend her? But the virtue
which is made up of these goods, when they are severed from
wisdom and exchanged with one another, is a shadow of virtue
only, nor is there any freedom or health or truth in her; but in
the true exchange there is a purging away of all these things,
and temperance, and justice, and courage, and wisdom herself are
a purgation of them. And I conceive that the founders of the
mysteries had a real meaning and were not mere triflers when they
intimated in a figure long ago that he who passes unsanctified
and uninitiated into the world below will live in a slough, but
that he who arrives there after initiation and purification will
dwell with the gods. For "many," as they say in the
mysteries, "are the thyrsus bearers, but few are the
mystics,"-meaning, as I interpret the words, the true
philosophers. In the number of whom I have been seeking,
according to my ability, to find a place during my whole life;
whether I have sought in a right way or not, and whether I have
succeeded or not, I shall truly know in a little while, if God
will, when I myself arrive in the other world: that is my belief.
And now, Simmias and Cebes, I have answered those who charge me
with not grieving or repining at parting from you and my masters
in this world; and I am right in not repining, for I believe that
I shall find other masters and friends who are as good in the
world below. But all men cannot believe this, and I shall be glad
if my words have any more success with you than with the judges
of the Athenians.
Cebes answered: I agree, Socrates, in the greater part of what
you say. But in what relates to the soul, men are apt to be
incredulous; they fear that when she leaves the body her place
may be nowhere, and that on the very day of death she may be
destroyed and perish-immediately on her release from the body,
issuing forth like smoke or air and vanishing away into
nothingness. For if she could only hold together and be herself
after she was released from the evils of the body, there would be
good reason to hope, Socrates, that what you say is true. But
much persuasion and many arguments are required in order to prove
that when the man is dead the soul yet exists, and has any force
True, Cebes, said Socrates; and shall I suggest that we talk a
little of the probabilities of these things?
I am sure, said Cebes, that I should gready like to know your
opinion about them.
I reckon, said Socrates, that no one who heard me now, not even
if he were one of my old enemies, the comic poets, could accuse
me of idle talking about matters in which I have no concern. Let
us, then, if you please, proceed with the inquiry.
Whether the souls of men after death are or are not in the world
below, is a question which may be argued in this manner: The
ancient doctrine of which I have been speaking affirms that they
go from this into the other world, and return hither, and are
born from the dead. Now if this be true, and the living come from
the dead, then our souls must be in the other world, for if not,
how could they be born again? And this would be conclusive, if
there were any real evidence that the living are only born from
the dead; but if there is no evidence of this, then other
arguments will have to be adduced.
That is very true, replied Cebes.
Then let us consider this question, not in relation to man only,
but in relation to animals generally, and to plants, and to
everything of which there is generation, and the proof will be
easier. Are not all things which have opposites generated out of
their opposites? I mean such things as good and evil, just and
unjust-and there are innumerable other opposites which are
generated out of opposites. And I want to show that this holds
universally of all opposites; I mean to say, for example, that
anything which becomes greater must become greater after being
And that which becomes less must have been once greater and then
And the weaker is generated from the stronger, and the swifter
from the slower.
And the worse is from the better, and the more just is from the
And is this true of all opposites? and are we convinced that all
of them are generated out of opposites?
And in this universal opposition of all things, are there not
also two intermediate processes which are ever going on, from one
to the other, and back again; where there is a greater and a less
there is also an intermediate process of increase and diminution,
and that which grows is said to wax, and that which decays to
Yes, he said.
And there are many other processes, such as division and
composition, cooling and heating, which equally involve a passage
into and out of one another. And this holds of all opposites,
even though not always expressed in words-they are generated out
of one another, and there is a passing or process from one to the
other of them?
Very true, he replied.
Well, and is there not an opposite of life, as sleep is the
opposite of waking?
True, he said.
And what is that?
Death, he answered.
And these, then, are generated, if they are opposites, the one
from the other, and have there their two intermediate processes
Now, said Socrates, I will analyze one of the two pairs of
opposites which I have mentioned to you, and also its
intermediate processes, and you shall analyze the other to me.
The state of sleep is opposed to the state of waking, and out of
sleeping waking is generated, and out of waking, sleeping, and
the process of generation is in the one case falling asleep, and
in the other waking up. Are you agreed about that?
Then suppose that you analyze life and death to me in the same
manner. Is not death opposed to life?
And they are generated one from the other?
What is generated from life?
And what from death?
I can only say in answer-life.
Then the living, whether things or persons, Cebes, are generated
from the dead?
That is clear, he replied.
Then the inference is, that our souls are in the world below?
That is true.
And one of the two processes or generations is visible-for surely
the act of dying is visible?
Surely, he said.
And may not the other be inferred as the complement of nature,
who is not to be supposed to go on one leg only? And if not, a
corresponding process of generation in death must also be
assigned to her?
Certainly, he replied.
And what is that process?
And revival, if there be such a thing, is the birth of the dead
into the world of the living?
Then there is a new way in which we arrive at the inference that
the living come from the dead, just as the dead come from the
living; and if this is true, then the souls of the dead must be
in some place out of which they come again. And this, as I think,
has been satisfactorily proved.
Yes, Socrates, he said; all this seems to flow necessarily out of
our previous admissions.
And that these admissions are not unfair, Cebes, he said, may be
shown, as I think, in this way: If generation were in a straight
line only, and there were no compensation or circle in nature, no
turn or return into one another, then you know that all things
would at last have the same form and pass into the same state,
and there would be no more generation of them.
What do you mean? he said.
A simple thing enough, which I will illustrate by the case of
sleep, he replied. You know that if there were no compensation of
sleeping and waking, the story of the sleeping Endymion would in
the end have no meaning, because all other things would be
asleep, too, and he would not be thought of. Or if there were
composition only, and no division of substances, then the chaos
of Anaxagoras would come again. And in like manner, my dear
Cebes, if all things which partook of life were to die, and after
they were dead remained in the form of death, and did not come to
life again, all would at last die, and nothing would be alive-how
could this be otherwise? For if the living spring from any others
who are not the dead, and they die, must not all things at last
be swallowed up in death?
There is no escape from that, Socrates, said Cebes; and I think
that what you say is entirely true.
Yes, he said, Cebes, I entirely think so, too; and we are not
walking in a vain imagination; but I am confident in the belief
that there truly is such a thing as living again, and that the
living spring from the dead, and that the souls of the dead are
in existence, and that the good souls have a better portion than
Cebes added: Your favorite doctrine, Socrates, that knowledge is
simply recollection, if true, also necessarily implies a previous
time in which we learned that which we now recollect. But this
would be impossible unless our soul was in some place before
existing in the human form; here, then, is another argument of
the soul's immortality.
But tell me, Cebes, said Simmias, interposing, what proofs are
given of this doctrine of recollection? I am not very sure at
this moment that I remember them.
One excellent proof, said Cebes, is afforded by questions. If you
put a question to a person in a right way, he will give a true
answer of himself; but how could he do this unless there were
knowledge and right reason already in him? And this is most
clearly shown when he is taken to a diagram or to anything of
But if, said Socrates, you are still incredulous, Simmias, I
would ask you whether you may not agree with me when you look at
the matter in another way; I mean, if you are still incredulous
as to whether knowledge is recollection.
Incredulous, I am not, said Simmias; but I want to have this
doctrine of recollection brought to my own recollection, and,
from what Cebes has said, I am beginning to recollect and be
convinced; but I should still like to hear what more you have to
This is what I would say, he replied: We should agree, if I am
not mistaken, that what a man recollects he must have known at
some previous time.
And what is the nature of this recollection? And, in asking this,
I mean to ask whether, when a person has already seen or heard or
in any way perceived anything, and he knows not only that, but
something else of which he has not the same, but another
knowledge, we may not fairly say that he recollects that which
comes into his mind. Are we agreed about that?
What do you mean?
I mean what I may illustrate by the following instance: The
knowledge of a lyre is not the same as the knowledge of a man?
And yet what is the feeling of lovers when they recognize a lyre,
or a garment, or anything else which the beloved has been in the
habit of using? Do not they, from knowing the lyre, form in the
mind's eye an image of the youth to whom the lyre belongs? And
this is recollection: and in the same way anyone who sees Simmias
may remember Cebes; and there are endless other things of the
Yes, indeed, there are-endless, replied Simmias.
And this sort of thing, he said, is recollection, and is most
commonly a process of recovering that which has been forgotten
through time and inattention.
Very true, he said.
Well; and may you not also from seeing the picture of a horse or
a lyre remember a man? and from the picture of Simmias, you may
be led to remember Cebes?
Or you may also be led to the recollection of Simmias himself?
True, he said.
And in all these cases, the recollection may be derived from
things either like or unlike?
That is true.
And when the recollection is derived from like things, then there
is sure to be another question, which is, whether the likeness of
that which is recollected is in any way defective or not.
Very true, he said.
And shall we proceed a step further, and affirm that there is
such a thing as equality, not of wood with wood, or of stone with
stone, but that, over and above this, there is equality in the
abstract? Shall we affirm this?
Affirm, yes, and swear to it, replied Simmias, with all the
confidence in life.
And do we know the nature of this abstract essence?
To be sure, he said.
And whence did we obtain this knowledge? Did we not see
equalities of material things, such as pieces of wood and stones,
and gather from them the idea of an equality which is different
from them?-you will admit that? Or look at the matter again in
this way: Do not the same pieces of wood or stone appear at one
time equal, and at another time unequal?
That is certain.
But are real equals ever unequal? or is the idea of equality ever
That surely was never yet known, Socrates.
Then these (so-called) equals are not the same with the idea of
I should say, clearly not, Socrates.
And yet from these equals, although differing from the idea of
equality, you conceived and attained that idea?
Very true, he said.
Which might be like, or might be unlike them?
But that makes no difference; whenever from seeing one thing you
conceived another, whether like or unlike, there must surely have
been an act of recollection?
But what would you say of equal portions of wood and stone, or
other material equals? and what is the impression produced by
them? Are they equals in the same sense as absolute equality? or
do they fall short of this in a measure?
Yes, he said, in a very great measure, too.
And must we not allow that when I or anyone look at any object,
and perceive that the object aims at being some other thing, but
falls short of, and cannot attain to it-he who makes this
observation must have had previous knowledge of that to which, as
he says, the other, although similar, was inferior?
And has not this been our case in the matter of equals and of
Then we must have known absolute equality previously to the time
when we first saw the material equals, and reflected that all
these apparent equals aim at this absolute equality, but fall
short of it?
That is true.
And we recognize also that this absolute equality has only been
known, and can only be known, through the medium of sight or
touch, or of some other sense. And this I would affirm of all
Yes, Socrates, as far as the argument is concerned, one of them
is the same as the other.
And from the senses, then, is derived the knowledge that all
sensible things aim at an idea of equality of which they fall
short-is not that true?
Then before we began to see or hear or perceive in any way, we
must have had a knowledge of absolute equality, or we could not
have referred to that the equals which are derived from the
senses-for to that they all aspire, and of that they fall short?
That, Socrates, is certainly to be inferred from the previous
And did we not see and hear and acquire our other senses as soon
as we were born?
Then we must have acquired the knowledge of the ideal equal at
some time previous to this?
That is to say, before we were born, I suppose?
And if we acquired this knowledge before we were born, and were
born having it, then we also knew before we were born and at the
instant of birth not only equal or the greater or the less, but
all other ideas; for we are not speaking only of equality
absolute, but of beauty, goodness, justice, holiness, and all
which we stamp with the name of essence in the dialectical
process, when we ask and answer questions. Of all this we may
certainly affirm that we acquired the knowledge before birth?
That is true.
But if, after having acquired, we have not forgotten that which
we acquired, then we must always have been born with knowledge,
and shall always continue to know as long as life lasts-for
knowing is the acquiring and retaining knowledge and not
forgetting. Is not forgetting, Simmias, just the losing of
Quite true, Socrates.
But if the knowledge which we acquired before birth was lost by
us at birth, and afterwards by the use of the senses we recovered
that which we previously knew, will not that which we call
learning be a process of recovering our knowledge, and may not
this be rightly termed recollection by us?
For this is clear, that when we perceived something, either by
the help of sight or hearing, or some other sense, there was no
difficulty in receiving from this a conception of some other
thing like or unlike which had been forgotten and which was
associated with this; and therefore, as I was saying, one of two
alternatives follows: either we had this knowledge at birth, and
continued to know through life; or, after birth, those who are
said to learn only remember, and learning is recollection only.
Yes, that is quite true, Socrates.
And which alternative, Simmias, do you prefer? Had we the
knowledge at our birth, or did we remember afterwards the things
which we knew previously to our birth?
I cannot decide at the moment.
At any rate you can decide whether he who has knowledge ought or
ought not to be able to give a reason for what he knows.
Certainly, he ought.
But do you think that every man is able to give a reason about
these very matters of which we are speaking?
I wish that they could, Socrates, but I greatly fear that to-morrow
at this time there will be no one able to give a reason worth
Then you are not of opinion, Simmias, that all men know these
Then they are in process of recollecting that which they learned
But when did our souls acquire this knowledge?-not since we were
born as men?
And therefore previously?
Then, Simmias, our souls must have existed before they were in
the form of man-without bodies, and must have had intelligence.
Unless indeed you suppose, Socrates, that these notions were
given us at the moment of birth; for this is the only time that
Yes, my friend, but when did we lose them? for they are not in us
when we are born-that is admitted. Did we lose them at the moment
of receiving them, or at some other time?
No, Socrates, I perceive that I was unconsciously talking
Then may we not say, Simmias, that if, as we are always
repeating, there is an absolute beauty, and goodness, and essence
in general, and to this, which is now discovered to be a previous
condition of our being, we refer all our sensations, and with
this compare them-assuming this to have a prior existence, then
our souls must have had a prior existence, but if not, there
would be no force in the argument? There can be no doubt that if
these absolute ideas existed before we were born, then our souls
must have existed before we were born, and if not the ideas, then
not the souls.
Yes, Socrates; I am convinced that there is precisely the same
necessity for the existence of the soul before birth, and of the
essence of which you are speaking: and the argument arrives at a
result which happily agrees with my own notion. For there is
nothing which to my mind is so evident as that beauty, goodness,
and other notions of which you were just now speaking have a most
real and absolute existence; and I am satisfied with the proof.
Well, but is Cebes equally satisfied? for I must convince him too.
I think, said Simmias, that Cebes is satisfied: although he is
the most incredulous of mortals, yet I believe that he is
convinced of the existence of the soul before birth. But that
after death the soul will continue to exist is not yet proven
even to my own satisfaction. I cannot get rid of the feeling of
the many to which Cebes was referring-the feeling that when the
man dies the soul may be scattered, and that this may be the end
of her. For admitting that she may be generated and created in
some other place, and may have existed before entering the human
body, why after having entered in and gone out again may she not
herself be destroyed and come to an end?
Very true, Simmias, said Cebes; that our soul existed before we
were born was the first half of the argument, and this appears to
have been proven; that the soul will exist after death as well as
before birth is the other half of which the proof is still
wanting, and has to be supplied.
But that proof, Simmias and Cebes, has been already given, said
Socrates, if you put the two arguments together-I mean this and
the former one, in which we admitted that everything living is
born of the dead. For if the soul existed before birth, and in
coming to life and being born can be born only from death and
dying, must she not after death continue to exist, since she has
to be born again? surely the proof which you desire has been
already furnished. Still I suspect that you and Simmias would be
glad to probe the argument further; like children, you are
haunted with a fear that when the soul leaves the body, the wind
may really blow her away and scatter her; especially if a man
should happen to die in stormy weather and not when the sky is
Cebes answered with a smile: Then, Socrates, you must argue us
out of our fears-and yet, strictly speaking, they are not our
fears, but there is a child within us to whom death is a sort of
hobgoblin; him too we must persuade not to be afraid when he is
alone with him in the dark.
Socrates said: Let the voice of the charmer be applied daily
until you have charmed him away.
And where shall we find a good charmer of our fears, Socrates,
when you are gone?
Hellas, he replied, is a large place, Cebes, and has many good
men, and there are barbarous races not a few: seek for him among
them all, far and wide, sparing neither pains nor money; for
there is no better way of using your money. And you must not
forget to seek for him among yourselves too; for he is nowhere
more likely to be found.
The search, replied Cebes, shall certainly be made. And now, if
you please, let us return to the point of the argument at which
By all means, replied Socrates; what else should I please?
Very good, he said.
Must we not, said Socrates, ask ourselves some question of this
sort?-What is that which, as we imagine, is liable to be
scattered away, and about which we fear? and what again is that
about which we have no fear? And then we may proceed to inquire
whether that which suffers dispersion is or is not of the nature
of soul-our hopes and fears as to our own souls will turn upon
That is true, he said.
Now the compound or composite may be supposed to be naturally
capable of being dissolved in like manner as of being compounded;
but that which is uncompounded, and that only, must be, if
anything is, indissoluble.
Yes; that is what I should imagine, said Cebes.
And the uncompounded may be assumed to be the same and
unchanging, where the compound is always changing and never the
That I also think, he said.
Then now let us return to the previous discussion. Is that idea
or essence, which in the dialectical process we define as essence
of true existence-whether essence of equality, beauty, or
anything else: are these essences, I say, liable at times to some
degree of change? or are they each of them always what they are,
having the same simple, self-existent and unchanging forms, and
not admitting of variation at all, or in any way, or at any time?
They must be always the same, Socrates, replied Cebes.
And what would you say of the many beautiful-whether men or
horses or garments or any other things which may be called equal
or beautiful-are they all unchanging and the same always, or
quite the reverse? May they not rather be described as almost
always changing and hardly ever the same either with themselves
or with one another?
The latter, replied Cebes; they are always in a state of change.
And these you can touch and see and perceive with the senses, but
the unchanging things you can only perceive with the mind-they
are invisible and are not seen?
That is very true, he said.
Well, then, he added, let us suppose that there are two sorts of
existences, one seen, the other unseen.
Let us suppose them.
The seen is the changing, and the unseen is the unchanging.
That may be also supposed.
And, further, is not one part of us body, and the rest of us
To be sure.
And to which class may we say that the body is more alike and
Clearly to the seen: no one can doubt that.
And is the soul seen or not seen?
Not by man, Socrates.
And by "seen" and "not seen" is meant by us
that which is or is not visible to the eye of man?
Yes, to the eye of man.
And what do we say of the soul? is that seen or not seen?
Then the soul is more like to the unseen, and the body to the
That is most certain, Socrates.
And were we not saying long ago that the soul when using the body
as an instrument of perception, that is to say, when using the
sense of sight or hearing or some other sense (for the meaning of
perceiving through the body is perceiving through the senses)-were
we not saying that the soul too is then dragged by the body into
the region of the changeable, and wanders and is confused; the
world spins round her, and she is like a drunkard when under
But when returning into herself she reflects; then she passes
into the realm of purity, and eternity, and immortality, and
unchangeableness, which are her kindred, and with them she ever
lives, when she is by herself and is not let or hindered; then
she ceases from her erring ways, and being in communion with the
unchanging is unchanging. And this state of the soul is called
That is well and truly said, Socrates, he replied.
And to which class is the soul more nearly alike and akin, as far
as may be inferred from this argument, as well as from the
I think, Socrates, that, in the opinion of everyone who follows
the argument, the soul will be infinitely more like the
unchangeable even the most stupid person will not deny that.
And the body is more like the changing?
Yet once more consider the matter in this light: When the soul
and the body are united, then nature orders the soul to rule and
govern, and the body to obey and serve.
Now which of these two functions is akin to the divine? and which
to the mortal? Does not the divine appear to you to be that which
naturally orders and rules, and the mortal that which is subject
And which does the soul resemble?
The soul resembles the divine and the body the mortal-there can
be no doubt of that, Socrates.
Then reflect, Cebes: is not the conclusion of the whole matter
this?-that the soul is in the very likeness of the divine, and
immortal, and intelligible, and uniform, and indissoluble, and
unchangeable; and the body is in the very likeness of the human,
and mortal, and unintelligible, and multiform, and dissoluble,
and changeable. Can this, my dear Cebes, be denied?
But if this is true, then is not the body liable to speedy
and is not the soul almost or altogether indissoluble?
And do you further observe, that after a man is dead, the body,
which is the visible part of man, and has a visible framework,
which is called a corpse, and which would naturally be dissolved
and decomposed and dissipated, is not dissolved or decomposed at
once, but may remain for a good while, if the constitution be
sound at the time of death, and the season of the year favorable?
For the body when shrunk and embalmed, as is the custom in Egypt,
may remain almost entire through infinite ages; and even in
decay, still there are some portions, such as the bones and
ligaments, which are practically indestructible. You allow that?
And are we to suppose that the soul, which is invisible, in
passing to the true Hades, which like her is invisible, and pure,
and noble, and on her way to the good and wise God, whither, if
God will, my soul is also soon to go-that the soul, I repeat, if
this be her nature and origin, is blown away and perishes
immediately on quitting the body as the many say? That can never
be, dear Simmias and Cebes. The truth rather is that the soul
which is pure at departing draws after her no bodily taint,
having never voluntarily had connection with the body, which she
is ever avoiding, herself gathered into herself (for such
abstraction has been the study of her life). And what does this
mean but that she has been a true disciple of philosophy and has
practised how to die easily? And is not philosophy the practice
That soul, I say, herself invisible, departs to the invisible
worldto the divine and immortal and rational: thither arriving,
she lives in bliss and is released from the error and folly of
men, their fears and wild passions and all other human ills, and
forever dwells, as they say of the initiated, in company with the
gods. Is not this true, Cebes?
Yes, said Cebes, beyond a doubt.
But the soul which has been polluted, and is impure at the time
of her departure, and is the companion and servant of the body
always, and is in love with and fascinated by the body and by the
desires and pleasures of the body, until she is led to believe
that the truth only exists in a bodily form, which a man may
touch and see and taste and use for the purposes of his lusts-the
soul, I mean, accustomed to hate and fear and avoid the
intellectual principle, which to the bodily eye is dark and
invisible, and can be attained only by philosophy-do you suppose
that such a soul as this will depart pure and unalloyed?
That is impossible, he replied.
She is engrossed by the corporeal, which the continual
association and constant care of the body have made natural to
And this, my friend, may be conceived to be that heavy, weighty,
earthy element of sight by which such a soul is depressed and
dragged down again into the visible world, because she is afraid
of the invisible and of the world below-prowling about tombs and
sepulchres, in the neighborhood of which, as they tell us, are
seen certain ghostly apparitions of souls which have not departed
pure, but are cloyed with sight and therefore visible.
That is very likely, Socrates.
Yes, that is very likely, Cebes; and these must be the souls, not
of the good, but of the evil, who are compelled to wander about
such places in payment of the penalty of their former evil way of
life; and they continue to wander until the desire which haunts
them is satisfied and they are imprisoned in another body. And
they may be supposed to be fixed in the same natures which they
had in their former life.
What natures do you mean, Socrates?
I mean to say that men who have followed after gluttony, and
wantonness, and drunkenness, and have had no thought of avoiding
them, would pass into asses and animals of that sort. What do you
I think that exceedingly probable.
And those who have chosen the portion of injustice, and tyranny,
and violence, will pass into wolves, or into hawks and kites;
whither else can we suppose them to go?
Yes, said Cebes; that is doubtless the place of natures such as
theirs. And there is no difficulty, he said, in assigning to all
of them places answering to their several natures and
There is not, he said.
Even among them some are happier than others; and the happiest
both in themselves and their place of abode are those who have
practised the civil and social virtues which are called
temperance and justice, and are acquired by habit and attention
without philosophy and mind.
Why are they the happiest?
Because they may be expected to pass into some gentle, social
nature which is like their own, such as that of bees or ants, or
even back again into the form of man, and just and moderate men
spring from them.
That is not impossible.
But he who is a philosopher or lover of learning, and is entirely
pure at departing, is alone permitted to reach the gods. And this
is the reason, Simmias and Cebes, why the true votaries of
philosophy abstain from all fleshly lusts, and endure and refuse
to give themselves up to them-not because they fear poverty or
the ruin of their families, like the lovers of money, and the
world in general; nor like the lovers of power and honor, because
they dread the dishonor or disgrace of evil deeds.
No, Socrates, that would not become them, said Cebes.
No, indeed, he replied; and therefore they who have a care of
their souls, and do not merely live in the fashions of the body,
say farewell to all this; they will not walk in the ways of the
blind: and when philosophy offers them purification and release
from evil, they feel that they ought not to resist her influence,
and to her they incline, and whither she leads they follow her.
What do you mean, Socrates?
I will tell you, he said. The lovers of knowledge are conscious
that their souls, when philosophy receives them, are simply
fastened and glued to their bodies: the soul is only able to view
existence through the bars of a prison, and not in her own
nature; she is wallowing in the mire of all ignorance; and
philosophy, seeing the terrible nature of her confinement, and
that the captive through desire is led to conspire in her own
captivity (for the lovers of knowledge are aware that this was
the original state of the soul, and that when she was in this
state philosophy received and gently counseled her, and wanted to
release her, pointing out to her that the eye is full of deceit,
and also the ear and other senses, and persuading her to retire
from them in all but the necessary use of them and to be gathered
up and collected into herself, and to trust only to herself and
her own intuitions of absolute existence, and mistrust that which
comes to her through others and is subject to vicissitude)-philosophy
shows her that this is visible and tangible, but that what she
sees in her own nature is intellectual and invisible. And the
soul of the true philosopher thinks that she ought not to resist
this deliverance, and therefore abstains from pleasures and
desires and pains and fears, as far as she is able; reflecting
that when a man has great joys or sorrows or fears or desires he
suffers from them, not the sort of evil which might be
anticipated-as, for example, the loss of his health or property,
which he has sacrificed to his lusts-but he has suffered an evil
greater far, which is the greatest and worst of all evils, and
one of which he never thinks.
And what is that, Socrates? said Cebes.
Why, this: When the feeling of pleasure or pain in the soul is
most intense, all of us naturally suppose that the object of this
intense feeling is then plainest and truest: but this is not the
And this is the state in which the soul is most enthralled by the
How is that?
Why, because each pleasure and pain is a sort of nail which nails
and rivets the soul to the body, and engrosses her and makes her
believe that to be true which the body affirms to be true; and
from agreeing with the body and having the same delights she is
obliged to have the same habits and ways, and is not likely ever
to be pure at her departure to the world below, but is always
saturated with the body; so that she soon sinks into another body
and there germinates and grows, and has therefore no part in the
communion of the divine and pure and simple.
That is most true, Socrates, answered Cebes.
And this, Cebes, is the reason why the true lovers of knowledge
are temperate and brave; and not for the reason which the world
Certainly not! For not in that way does the soul of a philosopher
reason; she will not ask philosophy to release her in order that
when released she may deliver herself up again to the thraldom of
pleasures and pains, doing a work only to be undone again,
weaving instead of unweaving her Penelope's web. But she will
make herself a calm of passion and follow Reason, and dwell in
her, beholding the true and divine (which is not matter of
opinion), and thence derive nourishment. Thus she seeks to live
while she lives, and after death she hopes to go to her own
kindred and to be freed from human ills. Never fear, Simmias and
Cebes, that a soul which has been thus nurtured and has had these
pursuits, will at her departure from the body be scattered and
blown away by the winds and be nowhere and nothing.
When Socrates had done speaking, for a considerable time there
was silence; he himself and most of us appeared to be meditating
on what had been said; only Cebes and Simmias spoke a few words
to one another. And Socrates observing this asked them what they
thought of the argument, and whether there was anything wanting?
For, said he, much is still open to suspicion and attack, if
anyone were disposed to sift the matter thoroughly. If you are
talking of something else I would rather not interrupt you, but
if you are still doubtful about the argument do not hesitate to
say exactly what you think, and let us have anything better which
you can suggest; and if I am likely to be of any use, allow me to
Simmias said: I must confess, Socrates, that doubts did arise in
our minds, and each of us was urging and inciting the other to
put the question which he wanted to have answered and which
neither of us liked to ask, fearing that our importunity might be
troublesome under present circumstances.
Socrates smiled and said: O Simmias, how strange that is; I am
not very likely to persuade other men that I do not regard my
present situation as a misfortune, if I am unable to persuade
you, and you will keep fancying that I am at all more troubled
now than at any other time. Will you not allow that I have as
much of the spirit of prophecy in me as the swans? For they, when
they perceive that they must die, having sung all their life
long, do then sing more than ever, rejoicing in the thought that
they are about to go away to the god whose ministers they are.
But men, because they are themselves afraid of death,
slanderously affirm of the swans that they sing a lament at the
last, not considering that no bird sings when cold, or hungry, or
in pain, not even the nightingale, nor the swallow, nor yet the
hoopoe; which are said indeed to tune a lay of sorrow, although I
do not believe this to be true of them any more than of the swans.
But because they are sacred to Apollo and have the gift of
prophecy and anticipate the good things of another world,
therefore they sing and rejoice in that day more than they ever
did before. And I, too, believing myself to be the consecrated
servant of the same God, and the fellow servant of the swans, and
thinking that I have received from my master gifts of prophecy
which are not inferior to theirs, would not go out of life less
merrily than the swans. Cease to mind then about this, but speak
and ask anything which you like, while the eleven magistrates of
Well, Socrates, said Simmias, then I will tell you my difficulty,
and Cebes will tell you his. For I dare say that you, Socrates,
feel, as I do, how very hard or almost impossible is the
attainment of any certainty about questions such as these in the
present life. And yet I should deem him a coward who did not
prove what is said about them to the uttermost, or whose heart
failed him before he had examined them on every side. For he
should persevere until he has attained one of two things: either
he should discover or learn the truth about them; or, if this is
impossible, I would have him take the best and most irrefragable
of human notions, and let this be the raft upon which he sails
through life-not without risk, as I admit, if he cannot find some
word of God which will more surely and safely carry him. And now,
as you bid me, I will venture to question you, as I should not
like to reproach myself hereafter with not having said at the
time what I think. For when I consider the matter either alone or
with Cebes, the argument does certainly appear to me, Socrates,
to be not sufficient.
Socrates answered: I dare say, my friend, that you may be right,
but I should like to know in what respect the argument is not
In this respect, replied Simmias: Might not a person use the same
argument about harmony and the lyre-might he not say that harmony
is a thing invisible, incorporeal, fair, divine, abiding in the
lyre which is harmonized, but that the lyre and the strings are
matter and material, composite, earthy, and akin to mortality?
And when someone breaks the lyre, or cuts and rends the strings,
then he who takes this view would argue as you do, and on the
same analogy, that the harmony survives and has not perished; for
you cannot imagine, as we would say, that the lyre without the
strings, and the broken strings themselves, remain, and yet that
the harmony, which is of heavenly and immortal nature and
kindred, has perished-and perished too before the mortal. The
harmony, he would say, certainly exists somewhere, and the wood
and strings will decay before that decays. For I suspect,
Socrates, that the notion of the soul which we are all of us
inclined to entertain, would also be yours, and that you too
would conceive the body to be strung up, and held together, by
the elements of hot and cold, wet and dry, and the like, and that
the soul is the harmony or due proportionate admixture of them.
And, if this is true, the inference clearly is that when the
strings of the body are unduly loosened or overstrained through
disorder or other injury, then the soul, though most divine, like
other harmonies of music or of the works of art, of course
perishes at once, although the material remains of the body may
last for a considerable time, until they are either decayed or
burnt. Now if anyone maintained that the soul, being the harmony
of the elements of the body, first perishes in that which is
called death, how shall we answer him?
Socrates looked round at us as his manner was, and said, with a
smile: Simmias has reason on his side; and why does not some one
of you who is abler than myself answer him? for there is force in
his attack upon me. But perhaps, before we answer him, we had
better also hear what Cebes has to say against the argument-this
will give us time for reflection, and when both of them have
spoken, we may either assent to them if their words appear to be
in consonance with the truth, or if not, we may take up the other
side, and argue with them. Please to tell me then, Cebes, he
said, what was the difficulty which troubled you?
Cebes said: I will tell you. My feeling is that the argument is
still in the same position, and open to the same objections which
were urged before; for I am ready to admit that the existence of
the soul before entering into the bodily form has been very
ingeniously, and, as I may be allowed to say, quite sufficiently
proven; but the existence of the soul after death is still, in my
judgment, unproven. Now my objection is not the same as that of
Simmias; for I am not disposed to deny that the soul is stronger
and more lasting than the body, being of opinion that in all such
respects the soul very far excels the body. Well, then, says the
argument to me, why do you remain unconvinced? When you see that
the weaker is still in existence after the man is dead, will you
not admit that the more lasting must also survive during the same
period of time? Now I, like Simmias, must employ a figure; and I
shall ask you to consider whether the figure is to the point. The
parallel which I will suppose is that of an old weaver, who dies,
and after his death somebody says: He is not dead, he must be
alive; and he appeals to the coat which he himself wove and wore,
and which is still whole and undecayed. And then he proceeds to
ask of someone who is incredulous, whether a man lasts longer, or
the coat which is in use and wear; and when he is answered that a
man lasts far longer, thinks that he has thus certainly
demonstrated the survival of the man, who is the more lasting,
because the less lasting remains. But that, Simmias, as I would
beg you to observe, is not the truth; everyone sees that he who
talks thus is talking nonsense. For the truth is that this
weaver, having worn and woven many such coats, though he outlived
several of them, was himself outlived by the last; but this is
surely very far from proving that a man is slighter and weaker
than a coat. Now the relation of the body to the soul may be
expressed in a similar figure; for you may say with reason that
the soul is lasting, and the body weak and short-lived in
comparison. And every soul may be said to wear out many bodies,
especially in the course of a long life. For if while the man is
alive the body deliquesces and decays, and yet the soul always
weaves her garment anew and repairs the waste, then of course,
when the soul perishes, she must have on her last garment, and
this only will survive her; but then again when the soul is dead
the body will at last show its native weakness, and soon pass
into decay. And therefore this is an argument on which I would
rather not rely as proving that the soul exists after death. For
suppose that we grant even more than you affirm as within the
range of possibility, and besides acknowledging that the soul
existed before birth admit also that after death the souls of
some are existing still, and will exist, and will be born and die
again and again, and that there is a natural strength in the soul
which will hold out and be born many times-for all this, we may
be still inclined to think that she will weary in the labors of
successive births, and may at last succumb in one of her deaths
and utterly perish; and this death and dissolution of the body
which brings destruction to the soul may be unknown to any of us,
for no one of us can have had any experience of it: and if this
be true, then I say that he who is confident in death has but a
foolish confidence, unless he is able to prove that the soul is
altogether immortal and imperishable. But if he is not able to
prove this, he who is about to die will always have reason to
fear that when the body is disunited, the soul also may utterly
All of us, as we afterwards remarked to one another, had an
unpleasant feeling at hearing them say this. When we had been so
firmly convinced before, now to have our faith shaken seemed to
introduce a confusion and uncertainty, not only into the previous
argument, but into any future one; either we were not good
judges, or there were no real grounds of belief.
[Ech.] There I feel with you-indeed I do, Phaedo, and when you
were speaking, I was beginning to ask myself the same question:
What argument can I ever trust again? For what could be more
convincing than the argument of Socrates, which has now fallen
into discredit? That the soul is a harmony is a doctrine which
has always had a wonderful attraction for me, and, when
mentioned, came back to me at once, as my own original conviction.
And now I must begin again and find another argument which will
assure me that when the man is dead the soul dies not with him.
Tell me, I beg, how did Socrates proceed? Did he appear to share
the unpleasant feeling which you mention? or did he receive the
interruption calmly and give a sufficient answer? Tell us, as
exactly as you can, what passed.
[Phaed.] Often, Echecrates, as I have admired Socrates, I never
admired him more than at that moment. That he should be able to
answer was nothing, but what astonished me was, first, the gentle
and pleasant and approving manner in which he regarded the words
of the young men, and then his quick sense of the wound which had
been inflicted by the argument, and his ready application of the
healing art. He might be compared to a general rallying his
defeated and broken army, urging them to follow him and return to
the field of argument.
[Ech.] How was that?
[Phaed.] You shall hear, for I was close to him on his right
hand, seated on a sort of stool, and he on a couch which was a
good deal higher. Now he had a way of playing with my hair, and
then he smoothed my head, and pressed the hair upon my neck, and
said: To-morrow, Phaedo, I suppose that these fair locks of yours
will be severed.
Yes, Socrates, I suppose that they will, I replied.
Not so if you will take my advice.
What shall I do with them? I said.
To-day, he replied, and not to-morrow, if this argument dies and
cannot be brought to life again by us, you and I will both shave
our locks; and if I were you, and could not maintain my ground
against Simmias and Cebes, I would myself take an oath, like the
Argives, not to wear hair any more until I had renewed the
conflict and defeated them.
Yes, I said, but Heracles himself is said not to be a match for
Summon me then, he said, and I will be your Iolaus until the sun
I summon you rather, I said, not as Heracles summoning Iolaus,
but as Iolaus might summon Heracles.
That will be all the same, he said. But first let us take care
that we avoid a danger.
And what is that? I said.
The danger of becoming misologists, he replied, which is one of
the very worst things that can happen to us. For as there are
misanthropists or haters of men, there are also misologists or
haters of ideas, and both spring from the same cause, which is
ignorance of the world. Misanthropy arises from the too great
confidence of inexperience; you trust a man and think him
altogether true and good and faithful, and then in a little while
he turns out to be false and knavish; and then another and
another, and when this has happened several times to a man,
especially within the circle of his most trusted friends, as he
deems them, and he has often quarreled with them, he at last
hates all men, and believes that no one has any good in him at
all. I dare say that you must have observed this.
Yes, I said.
And is not this discreditable? The reason is that a man, having
to deal with other men, has no knowledge of them; for if he had
knowledge he would have known the true state of the case, that
few are the good and few the evil, and that the great majority
are in the interval between them.
How do you mean? I said.
I mean, he replied, as you might say of the very large and very
small, that nothing is more uncommon than a very large or a very
small man; and this applies generally to all extremes, whether of
great and small, or swift and slow, or fair and foul, or black
and white: and whether the instances you select be men or dogs or
anything else, few are the extremes, but many are in the mean
between them. Did you never observe this?
Yes, I said, I have.
And do you not imagine, he said, that if there were a competition
of evil, the first in evil would be found to be very few?
Yes, that is very likely, I said.
Yes, that is very likely, he replied; not that in this respect
arguments are like men-there I was led on by you to say more than
I had intended; but the point of comparison was that when a
simple man who has no skill in dialectics believes an argument to
be true which he afterwards imagines to be false, whether really
false or not, and then another and another, he has no longer any
faith left, and great disputers, as you know, come to think, at
last that they have grown to be the wisest of mankind; for they
alone perceive the utter unsoundness and instability of all
arguments, or, indeed, of all things, which, like the currents in
the Euripus, are going up and down in never-ceasing ebb and flow.
That is quite true, I said.
Yes, Phaedo, he replied, and very melancholy too, if there be
such a thing as truth or certainty or power of knowing at all,
that a man should have lighted upon some argument or other which
at first seemed true and then turned out to be false, and instead
of blaming himself and his own want of wit, because he is
annoyed, should at last be too glad to transfer the blame from
himself to arguments in general; and forever afterwards should
hate and revile them, and lose the truth and knowledge of
Yes, indeed, I said; that is very melancholy.
Let us, then, in the first place, he said, be careful of
admitting into our souls the notion that there is no truth or
health or soundness in any arguments at all; but let us rather
say that there is as yet no health in us, and that we must quit
ourselves like men and do our best to gain health-you and all
other men with a view to the whole of your future life, and I
myself with a view to death. For at this moment I am sensible
that I have not the temper of a philosopher; like the vulgar, I
am only a partisan. For the partisan, when he is engaged in a
dispute, cares nothing about the rights of the question, but is
anxious only to convince his hearers of his own assertions. And
the difference between him and me at the present moment is only
this-that whereas he seeks to convince his hearers that what he
says is true, I am rather seeking to convince myself; to convince
my hearers is a secondary matter with me. And do but see how much
I gain by this. For if what I say is true, then I do well to be
persuaded of the truth, but if there be nothing after death,
still, during the short time that remains, I shall save my
friends from lamentations, and my ignorance will not last, and
therefore no harm will be done. This is the state of mind,
Simmias and Cebes, in which I approach the argument. And I would
ask you to be thinking of the truth and not of Socrates: agree
with me, if I seem to you to be speaking the truth; or if not,
withstand me might and main, that I may not deceive you as well
as myself in my enthusiasm, and, like the bee, leave my sting in
you before I die.
And now let us proceed, he said. And first of all let me be sure
that I have in my mind what you were saying. Simmias, if I
remember rightly, has fears and misgivings whether the soul,
being in the form of harmony, although a fairer and diviner thing
than the body, may not perish first. On the other hand, Cebes
appeared to grant that the soul was more lasting than the body,
but he said that no one could know whether the soul, after having
worn out many bodies, might not perish herself and leave her last
body behind her; and that this is death, which is the destruction
not of the body but of the soul, for in the body the work of
destruction is ever going on. Are not these, Simmias and Cebes,
the points which we have to consider?
They both agreed to this statement of them.
He proceeded: And did you deny the force of the whole preceding
argument, or of a part only?
Of a part only, they replied.
And what did you think, he said, of that part of the argument in
which we said that knowledge was recollection only, and inferred
from this that the soul must have previously existed somewhere
else before she was enclosed in the body? Cebes said that he had
been wonderfully impressed by that part of the argument, and that
his conviction remained unshaken. Simmias agreed, and added that
he himself could hardly imagine the possibility of his ever
thinking differently about that.
But, rejoined Socrates, you will have to think differently, my
Theban friend, if you still maintain that harmony is a compound,
and that the soul is a harmony which is made out of strings set
in the frame of the body; for you will surely never allow
yourself to say that a harmony is prior to the elements which
compose the harmony.
No, Socrates, that is impossible.
But do you not see that you are saying this when you say that the
soul existed before she took the form and body of man, and was
made up of elements which as yet had no existence? For harmony is
not a sort of thing like the soul, as you suppose; but first the
lyre, and the strings, and the sounds exist in a state of
discord, and then harmony is made last of all, and perishes first.
And how can such a notion of the soul as this agree with the
Not at all, replied Simmias.
And yet, he said, there surely ought to be harmony when harmony
is the theme of discourse.
There ought, replied Simmias.
But there is no harmony, he said, in the two propositions that
knowledge is recollection, and that the soul is a harmony. Which
of them, then, will you retain?
I think, he replied, that I have a much stronger faith, Socrates,
in the first of the two, which has been fully demonstrated to me,
than in the latter, which has not been demonstrated at all, but
rests only on probable and plausible grounds; and I know too well
that these arguments from probabilities are impostors, and unless
great caution is observed in the use of them they are apt to be
deceptive-in geometry, and in other things too. But the doctrine
of knowledge and recollection has been proven to me on
trustworthy grounds; and the proof was that the soul must have
existed before she came into the body, because to her belongs the
essence of which the very name implies existence. Having, as I am
convinced, rightly accepted this conclusion, and on sufficient
grounds, I must, as I suppose, cease to argue or allow others to
argue that the soul is a harmony.
Let me put the matter, Simmias, he said, in another point of view:
Do you imagine that a harmony or any other composition can be in
a state other than that of the elements out of which it is
Or do or suffer anything other than they do or suffer?
Then a harmony does not lead the parts or elements which make up
the harmony, but only follows them.
For harmony cannot possibly have any motion, or sound, or other
quality which is opposed to the parts.
That would be impossible, he replied.
And does not every harmony depend upon the manner in which the
elements are harmonized?
I do not understand you, he said.
I mean to say that a harmony admits of degrees, and is more of a
harmony, and more completely a harmony, when more completely
harmonized, if that be possible; and less of a harmony, and less
completely a harmony, when less harmonized.
But does the soul admit of degrees? or is one soul in the very
least degree more or less, or more or less completely, a soul
Not in the least.
Yet surely one soul is said to have intelligence and virtue, and
to be good, and another soul is said to have folly and vice, and
to be an evil soul: and this is said truly?
But what will those who maintain the soul to be a harmony say of
this presence of virtue and vice in the soul?-Will they say that
there is another harmony, and another discord, and that the
virtuous soul is harmonized, and herself being a harmony has
another harmony within her, and that the vicious soul is
inharmonical and has no harmony within her?
I cannot say, replied Simmias; but I suppose that something of
that kind would be asserted by those who take this view.
And the admission is already made that no soul is more a soul
than another; and this is equivalent to admitting that harmony is
not more or less harmony, or more or less completely a harmony?
And that which is not more or less a harmony is not more or less
And that which is not more or less harmonized cannot have more or
less of harmony, but only an equal harmony?
Yes, an equal harmony.
Then one soul not being more or less absolutely a soul than
another, is not more or less harmonized?
And therefore has neither more nor less of harmony or of discord?
She has not.
And having neither more nor less of harmony or of discord, one
soul has no more vice or virtue than another, if vice be discord
and virtue harmony?
Not at all more.
Or speaking more correctly, Simmias, the soul, if she is a
harmony, will never have any vice; because a harmony, being
absolutely a harmony, has no part in the inharmonical?
And therefore a soul which is absolutely a soul has no vice?
How can she have, consistently with the preceding argument?
Then, according to this, if the souls of all animals are equally
and absolutely souls, they will be equally good?
I agree with you, Socrates, he said.
And can all this be true, think you? he said; and are all these
consequences admissible-which nevertheless seem to follow from
the assumption that the soul is a harmony?
Certainly not, he said.
Once more, he said, what ruling principle is there of human
things other than the soul, and especially the wise soul? Do you
know of any?
Indeed, I do not.
And is the soul in agreement with the affections of the body? or
is she at variance with them? For example, when the body is hot
and thirsty, does not the soul incline us against drinking? and
when the body is hungry, against eating? And this is only one
instance out of ten thousand of the opposition of the soul to the
things of the body.
But we have already acknowledged that the soul, being a harmony,
can never utter a note at variance with the tensions and
relaxations and vibrations and other affections of the strings
out of which she is composed; she can only follow, she cannot
Yes, he said, we acknowledged that, certainly.
And yet do we not now discover the soul to be doing the exact
opposite-leading the elements of which she is believed to be
composed; almost always opposing and coercing them in all sorts
of ways throughout life, sometimes more violently with the pains
of medicine and gymnastic; then again more gently; threatening
and also reprimanding the desires, passions, fears, as if talking
to a thing which is not herself, as Homer in the "Odyssey"
represents Odysseus doing in the words,
"He beat his breast, and thus reproached his heart:
Endure, my heart; far worse hast thou endured!"
Do you think that Homer could have written this under the idea
that the soul is a harmony capable of being led by the affections
of the body, and not rather of a nature which leads and masters
them; and herself a far diviner thing than any harmony?
Yes, Socrates, I quite agree to that.
Then, my friend, we can never be right in saying that the soul is
a harmony, for that would clearly contradict the divine Homer as
well as ourselves.
True, he said.
Thus much, said Socrates, of Harmonia, your Theban goddess,
Cebes, who has not been ungracious to us, I think; but what shall
I say to the Theban Cadmus, and how shall I propitiate him?
I think that you will discover a way of propitiating him, said
Cebes; I am sure that you have answered the argument about
harmony in a manner that I could never have expected. For when
Simmias mentioned his objection, I quite imagined that no answer
could be given to him, and therefore I was surprised at finding
that his argument could not sustain the first onset of yours; and
not impossibly the other, whom you call Cadmus, may share a
Nay, my good friend, said Socrates, let us not boast, lest some
evil eye should put to flight the word which I am about to speak.
That, however, may be left in the hands of those above, while I
draw near in Homeric fashion, and try the mettle of your words.
Briefly, the sum of your objection is as follows: You want to
have proven to you that the soul is imperishable and immortal,
and you think that the philosopher who is confident in death has
but a vain and foolish confidence, if he thinks that he will fare
better than one who has led another sort of life, in the world
below, unless he can prove this; and you say that the
demonstration of the strength and divinity of the soul, and of
her existence prior to our becoming men, does not necessarily
imply her immortality. Granting that the soul is longlived, and
has known and done much in a former state, still she is not on
that account immortal; and her entrance into the human form may
be a sort of disease which is the beginning of dissolution, and
may at last, after the toils of life are over, end in that which
is called death. And whether the soul enters into the body once
only or many times, that, as you would say, makes no difference
in the fears of individuals. For any man, who is not devoid of
natural feeling, has reason to fear, if he has no knowledge or
proof of the soul's immortality. That is what I suppose you to
say, Cebes, which I designedly repeat, in order that nothing may
escape us, and that you may, if you wish, add or subtract
But, said Cebes, as far as I can see at present, I have nothing
to add or subtract; you have expressed my meaning.
Socrates paused awhile, and seemed to be absorbed in reflection.
At length he said: This is a very serious inquiry which you are
raising, Cebes, involving the whole question of generation and
corruption, about which I will, if you like, give you my own
experience; and you can apply this, if you think that anything
which I say will avail towards the solution of your difficulty.
I should very much like, said Cebes, to hear what you have to say.
Then I will tell you, said Socrates. When I was young, Cebes, I
had a prodigious desire to know that department of philosophy
which is called Natural Science; this appeared to me to have
lofty aims, as being the science which has to do with the causes
of things, and which teaches why a thing is, and is created and
destroyed; and I was always agitating myself with the
consideration of such questions as these: Is the growth of
animals the result of some decay which the hot and cold principle
contracts, as some have said? Is the blood the element with which
we think, or the air, or the fire? or perhaps nothing of this
sort-but the brain may be the originating power of the
perceptions of hearing and sight and smell, and memory and
opinion may come from them, and science may be based on memory
and opinion when no longer in motion, but at rest. And then I
went on to examine the decay of them, and then to the things of
heaven and earth, and at last I concluded that I was wholly
incapable of these inquiries, as I will satisfactorily prove to
you. For I was fascinated by them to such a degree that my eyes
grew blind to things that I had seemed to myself, and also to
others, to know quite well; and I forgot what I had before
thought to be self-evident, that the growth of man is the result
of eating and drinking; for when by the digestion of food flesh
is added to flesh and bone to bone, and whenever there is an
aggregation of congenial elements, the lesser bulk becomes larger
and the small man greater. Was not that a reasonable notion?
Yes, said Cebes, I think so.
Well; but let me tell you something more. There was a time when I
thought that I understood the meaning of greater and less pretty
well; and when I saw a great man standing by a little one I
fancied that one was taller than the other by a head; or one
horse would appear to be greater than another horse: and still
more clearly did I seem to perceive that ten is two more than
eight, and that two cubits are more than one, because two is
And what is now your notion of such matters? said Cebes.
I should be far enough from imagining, he replied, that I knew
the cause of any of them, indeed I should, for I cannot satisfy
myself that when one is added to one, the one to which the
addition is made becomes two, or that the two units added
together make two by reason of the addition. For I cannot
understand how, when separated from the other, each of them was
one and not two, and now, when they are brought together, the
mere juxtaposition of them can be the cause of their becoming two:
nor can I understand how the division of one is the way to make
two; for then a different cause would produce the same effect-as
in the former instance the addition and juxtaposition of one to
one was the cause of two, in this the separation and subtraction
of one from the other would be the cause. Nor am I any longer
satisfied that I understand the reason why one or anything else
either is generated or destroyed or is at all, but I have in my
mind some confused notion of another method, and can never admit
Then I heard someone who had a book of Anaxagoras, as he said,
out of which he read that mind was the disposer and cause of all,
and I was quite delighted at the notion of this, which appeared
admirable, and I said to myself: If mind is the disposer, mind
will dispose all for the best, and put each particular in the
best place; and I argued that if anyone desired to find out the
cause of the generation or destruction or existence of anything,
he must find out what state of being or suffering or doing was
best for that thing, and therefore a man had only to consider the
best for himself and others, and then he would also know the
worse, for that the same science comprised both. And I rejoiced
to think that I had found in Anaxagoras a teacher of the causes
of existence such as I desired, and I imagined that he would tell
me first whether the earth is flat or round; and then he would
further explain the cause and the necessity of this, and would
teach me the nature of the best and show that this was best; and
if he said that the earth was in the centre, he would explain
that this position was the best, and I should be satisfied if
this were shown to me, and not want any other sort of cause. And
I thought that I would then go and ask him about the sun and moon
and stars, and that he would explain to me their comparative
swiftness, and their returnings and various states, and how their
several affections, active and passive, were all for the best.
For I could not imagine that when he spoke of mind as the
disposer of them, he would give any other account of their being
as they are, except that this was best; and I thought when he had
explained to me in detail the cause of each and the cause of all,
he would go on to explain to me what was best for each and what
was best for all. I had hopes which I would not have sold for
much, and I seized the books and read them as fast as I could in
my eagerness to know the better and the worse.
What hopes I had formed, and how grievously was I disappointed!
As I proceeded, I found my philosopher altogether forsaking mind
or any other principle of order, but having recourse to air, and
ether, and water, and other eccentricities. I might compare him
to a person who began by maintaining generally that mind is the
cause of the actions of Socrates, but who, when he endeavored to
explain the causes of my several actions in detail, went on to
show that I sit here because my body is made up of bones and
muscles; and the bones, as he would say, are hard and have
ligaments which divide them, and the muscles are elastic, and
they cover the bones, which have also a covering or environment
of flesh and skin which contains them; and as the bones are
lifted at their joints by the contraction or relaxation of the
muscles, I am able to bend my limbs, and this is why I am sitting
here in a curved posture: that is what he would say, and he would
have a similar explanation of my talking to you, which he would
attribute to sound, and air, and hearing, and he would assign ten
thousand other causes of the same sort, forgetting to mention the
true cause, which is that the Athenians have thought fit to
condemn me, and accordingly I have thought it better and more
right to remain here and undergo my sentence; for I am inclined
to think that these muscles and bones of mine would have gone off
to Megara or Boeotia-by the dog of Egypt they would, if they had
been guided only by their own idea of what was best, and if I had
not chosen as the better and nobler part, instead of playing
truant and running away, to undergo any punishment which the
State inflicts. There is surely a strange confusion of causes and
conditions in all this. It may be said, indeed, that without
bones and muscles and the other parts of the body I cannot
execute my purposes. But to say that I do as I do because of
them, and that this is the way in which mind acts, and not from
the choice of the best, is a very careless and idle mode of
speaking. I wonder that they cannot distinguish the cause from
the condition, which the many, feeling about in the dark, are
always mistaking and misnaming. And thus one man makes a vortex
all round and steadies the earth by the heaven; another gives the
air as a support to the earth, which is a sort of broad trough.
Any power which in disposing them as they are disposes them for
the best never enters into their minds, nor do they imagine that
there is any superhuman strength in that; they rather expect to
find another Atlas of the world who is stronger and more
everlasting and more containing than the good is, and are clearly
of opinion that the obligatory and containing power of the good
is as nothing; and yet this is the principle which I would fain
learn if anyone would teach me. But as I have failed either to
discover myself or to learn of anyone else, the nature of the
best, I will exhibit to you, if you like, what I have found to be
the second best mode of inquiring into the cause.
I should very much like to hear that, he replied.
Socrates proceeded: I thought that as I had failed in the
contemplation of true existence, I ought to be careful that I did
not lose the eye of my soul; as people may injure their bodily
eye by observing and gazing on the sun during an eclipse, unless
they take the precaution of only looking at the image reflected
in the water, or in some similar medium. That occurred to me, and
I was afraid that my soul might be blinded altogether if I looked
at things with my eyes or tried by the help of the senses to
apprehend them. And I thought that I had better have recourse to
ideas, and seek in them the truth of existence. I dare say that
the simile is not perfect-for I am very far from admitting that
he who contemplates existence through the medium of ideas, sees
them only "through a glass darkly," any more than he
who sees them in their working and effects. However, this was the
method which I adopted: I first assumed some principle which I
judged to be the strongest, and then I affirmed as true whatever
seemed to agree with this, whether relating to the cause or to
anything else; and that which disagreed I regarded as untrue. But
I should like to explain my meaning clearly, as I do not think
that you understand me.
No, indeed, replied Cebes, not very well.
There is nothing new, he said, in what I am about to tell you;
but only what I have been always and everywhere repeating in the
previous discussion and on other occasions: I want to show you
the nature of that cause which has occupied my thoughts, and I
shall have to go back to those familiar words which are in the
mouth of everyone, and first of all assume that there is an
absolute beauty and goodness and greatness, and the like; grant
me this, and I hope to be able to show you the nature of the
cause, and to prove the immortality of the soul.
Cebes said: You may proceed at once with the proof, as I readily
grant you this.
Well, he said, then I should like to know whether you agree with
me in the next step; for I cannot help thinking that if there be
anything beautiful other than absolute beauty, that can only be
beautiful in as far as it partakes of absolute beauty-and this I
should say of everything. Do you agree in this notion of the
Yes, he said, I agree.
He proceeded: I know nothing and can understand nothing of any
other of those wise causes which are alleged; and if a person
says to me that the bloom of color, or form, or anything else of
that sort is a source of beauty, I leave all that, which is only
confusing to me, and simply and singly, and perhaps foolishly,
hold and am assured in my own mind that nothing makes a thing
beautiful but the presence and participation of beauty in
whatever way or manner obtained; for as to the manner I am
uncertain, but I stoutly contend that by beauty all beautiful
things become beautiful. That appears to me to be the only safe
answer that I can give, either to myself or to any other, and to
that I cling, in the persuasion that I shall never be overthrown,
and that I may safely answer to myself or any other that by
beauty beautiful things become beautiful. Do you not agree to
Yes, I agree.
And that by greatness only great things become great and greater
greater, and by smallness the less becomes less.
Then if a person remarks that A is taller by a head than B, and B
less by a head than A, you would refuse to admit this, and would
stoutly contend that what you mean is only that the greater is
greater by, and by reason of, greatness, and the less is less
only by, or by reason of, smallness; and thus you would avoid the
danger of saying that the greater is greater and the less by the
measure of the head, which is the same in both, and would also
avoid the monstrous absurdity of supposing that the greater man
is greater by reason of the head, which is small. Would you not
be afraid of that?
Indeed, I should, said Cebes, laughing.
In like manner you would be afraid to say that ten exceeded eight
by, and by reason of, two; but would say by, and by reason of,
number; or that two cubits exceed one cubit not by a half, but by
magnitude?-that is what you would say, for there is the same
danger in both cases.
Very true, he said.
Again, would you not be cautious of affirming that the addition
of one to one, or the division of one, is the cause of two? And
you would loudly asseverate that you know of no way in which
anything comes into existence except by participation in its own
proper essence, and consequently, as far as you know, the only
cause of two is the participation in duality; that is the way to
make two, and the participation in one is the way to make one.
You would say: I will let alone puzzles of division and addition-wiser
heads than mine may answer them; inexperienced as I am, and ready
to start, as the proverb says, at my own shadow, I cannot afford
to give up the sure ground of a principle. And if anyone assails
you there, you would not mind him, or answer him until you had
seen whether the consequences which follow agree with one another
or not, and when you are further required to give an explanation
of this principle, you would go on to assume a higher principle,
and the best of the higher ones, until you found a resting-place;
but you would not refuse the principle and the consequences in
your reasoning like the Eristics-at least if you wanted to
discover real existence. Not that this confusion signifies to
them who never care or think about the matter at all, for they
have the wit to be well pleased with themselves, however great
may be the turmoil of their ideas. But you, if you are a
philosopher, will, I believe, do as I say.
What you say is most true, said Simmias and Cebes, both speaking
[Ech.] Yes, Phaedo; and I don't wonder at their assenting. Anyone
who has the least sense will acknowledge the wonderful clear. of
[Phaed.] Certainly, Echecrates; and that was the feeling of the
whole company at the time.
[Ech.] Yes, and equally of ourselves, who were not of the
company, and are now listening to your recital. But what
Phaedo. After all this was admitted, and they had agreed about
the existence of ideas and the participation in them of the other
things which derive their names from them, Socrates, if I
remember rightly, said:-
This is your way of speaking; and yet when you say that Simmias
is greater than Socrates and less than Phaedo, do you not
predicate of Simmias both greatness and smallness?
Yes, I do.
But still you allow that Simmias does not really exceed Socrates,
as the words may seem to imply, because he is Simmias, but by
reason of the size which he has; just as Simmias does not exceed
Socrates because he is Simmias, any more than because Socrates is
Socrates, but because he has smallness when compared with the
greatness of Simmias?
And if Phaedo exceeds him in size, that is not because Phaedo is
Phaedo, but because Phaedo has greatness relatively to Simmias,
who is comparatively smaller?
That is true.
And therefore Simmias is said to be great, and is also said to be
small, because he is in a mean between them, exceeding the
smallness of the one by his greatness, and allowing the greatness
of the other to exceed his smallness. He added, laughing, I am
speaking like a book, but I believe that what I am now saying is
Simmias assented to this.
The reason why I say this is that I want you to agree with me in
thinking, not only that absolute greatness will never be great
and also small, but that greatness in us or in the concrete will
never admit the small or admit of being exceeded: instead of
this, one of two things will happen-either the greater will fly
or retire before the opposite, which is the less, or at the
advance of the less will cease to exist; but will not, if
allowing or admitting smallness, be changed by that; even as I,
having received and admitted smallness when compared with
Simmias, remain just as I was, and am the same small person. And
as the idea of greatness cannot condescend ever to be or become
small, in like manner the smallness in us cannot be or become
great; nor can any other opposite which remains the same ever be
or become its own opposite, but either passes away or perishes in
That, replied Cebes, is quite my notion.
One of the company, though I do not exactly remember which of
them, on hearing this, said: By Heaven, is not this the direct
contrary of what was admitted before-that out of the greater came
the less and out of the less the greater, and that opposites are
simply generated from opposites; whereas now this seems to be
Socrates inclined his head to the speaker and listened. I like
your courage, he said, in reminding us of this. But you do not
observe that there is a difference in the two cases. For then we
were speaking of opposites in the concrete, and now of the
essential opposite which, as is affirmed, neither in us nor in
nature can ever be at variance with itself: then, my friend, we
were speaking of things in which opposites are inherent and which
are called after them, but now about the opposites which are
inherent in them and which give their name to them; these
essential opposites will never, as we maintain, admit of
generation into or out of one another. At the same time, turning
to Cebes, he said: Were you at all disconcerted, Cebes, at our
That was not my feeling, said Cebes; and yet I cannot deny that I
am apt to be disconcerted.
Then we are agreed after all, said Socrates, that the opposite
will never in any case be opposed to itself?
To that we are quite agreed, he replied.
Yet once more let me ask you to consider the question from
another point of view, and see whether you agree with me: There
is a thing which you term heat, and another thing which you term
But are they the same as fire and snow?
Most assuredly not.
Heat is not the same as fire, nor is cold the same as snow?
And yet you will surely admit that when snow, as before said, is
under the influence of heat, they will not remain snow and heat;
but at the advance of the heat the snow will either retire or
Very true, he replied.
And the fire too at the advance of the cold will either retire or
perish; and when the fire is under the influence of the cold,
they will not remain, as before, fire and cold.
That is true, he said.
And in some cases the name of the idea is not confined to the
idea; but anything else which, not being the idea, exists only in
the form of the idea, may also lay claim to it. I will try to
make this clearer by an example: The odd number is always called
by the name of odd?
But is this the only thing which is called odd? Are there not
other things which have their own name, and yet are called odd,
because, although not the same as oddness, they are never without
oddness?-that is what I mean to ask-whether numbers such as the
number three are not of the class of odd. And there are many
other examples: would you not say, for example, that three may be
called by its proper name, and also be called odd, which is not
the same with three? and this may be said not only of three but
also of five, and every alternate number-each of them without
being oddness is odd, and in the same way two and four, and the
whole series of alternate numbers, has every number even, without
being evenness. Do you admit that?
Yes, he said, how can I deny that?
Then now mark the point at which I am aiming: not only do
essential opposites exclude one another, but also concrete
things, which, although not in themselves opposed, contain
opposites; these, I say, also reject the idea which is opposed to
that which is contained in them, and at the advance of that they
either perish or withdraw. There is the number three for example;
will not that endure annihilation or anything sooner than be
converted into an even number, remaining three?
Very true, said Cebes.
And yet, he said, the number two is certainly not opposed to the
It is not.
Then not only do opposite ideas repel the advance of one another,
but also there are other things which repel the approach of
That is quite true, he said.
Suppose, he said, that we endeavor, if possible, to determine
what these are.
By all means.
Are they not, Cebes, such as compel the things of which they have
possession, not only to take their own form, but also the form of
What do you mean?
I mean, as I was just now saying, and have no need to repeat to
you, that those things which are possessed by the number three
must not only be three in number, but must also be odd.
And on this oddness, of which the number three has the impress,
the opposite idea will never intrude?
And this impress was given by the odd principle?
And to the odd is opposed the even?
Then the idea of the even number will never arrive at three?
Then three has no part in the even?
Then the triad or number three is uneven?
To return then to my distinction of natures which are not
opposites, and yet do not admit opposites: as, in this instance,
three, although not opposed to the even, does not any the more
admit of the even, but always brings the opposite into play on
the other side; or as two does not receive the odd, or fire the
cold-from these examples (and there are many more of them)
perhaps you may be able to arrive at the general conclusion that
not only opposites will not receive opposites, but also that
nothing which brings the opposite will admit the opposite of that
which it brings in that to which it is brought. And here let me
recapitulate-for there is no harm in repetition. The number five
will not admit the nature of the even, any more than ten, which
is the double of five, will admit the nature of the odd-the
double, though not strictly opposed to the odd, rejects the odd
altogether. Nor again will parts in the ratio of 3:2, nor any
fraction in which there is a half, nor again in which there is a
third, admit the notion of the whole, although they are not
opposed to the whole. You will agree to that?
Yes, he said, I entirely agree and go along with you in that.
And now, he said, I think that I may begin again; and to the
question which I am about to ask I will beg you to give not the
old safe answer, but another, of which I will offer you an
example; and I hope that you will find in what has been just said
another foundation which is as safe. I mean that if anyone asks
you "what that is, the inherence of which makes the body
hot," you will reply not heat (this is what I call the safe
and stupid answer), but fire, a far better answer, which we are
now in a condition to give. Or if anyone asks you "why a
body is diseased," you will not say from disease, but from
fever; and instead of saying that oddness is the cause of odd
numbers, you will say that the monad is the cause of them: and so
of things in general, as I dare say that you will understand
sufficiently without my adducing any further examples.
Yes, he said, I quite understand you.
Tell me, then, what is that the inherence of which will render
the body alive?
The soul, he replied.
And is this always the case?
Yes, he said, of course.
Then whatever the soul possesses, to that she comes bearing life?
And is there any opposite to life?
There is, he said.
And what is that?
Then the soul, as has been acknowledged, will never receive the
opposite of what she brings. And now, he said, what did we call
that principle which repels the even?
And that principle which repels the musical, or the just?
The unmusical, he said, and the unjust.
And what do we call the principle which does not admit of death?
The immortal, he said.
And does the soul admit of death?
Then the soul is immortal?
Yes, he said.
And may we say that this is proven?
Yes, abundantly proven, Socrates, he replied.
And supposing that the odd were imperishable, must not three be
And if that which is cold were imperishable, when the warm
principle came attacking the snow, must not the snow have retired
whole and unmelted-for it could never have perished, nor could it
have remained and admitted the heat?
True, he said.
Again, if the uncooling or warm principle were imperishable, the
fire when assailed by cold would not have perished or have been
extinguished, but would have gone away unaffected?
Certainly, he said.
And the same may be said of the immortal: if the immortal is also
imperishable, the soul when attacked by death cannot perish; for
the preceding argument shows that the soul will not admit of
death, or ever be dead, any more than three or the odd number
will admit of the even, or fire or the heat in the fire, of the
cold. Yet a person may say: "But although the odd will not
become even at the approach of the even, why may not the odd
perish and the even take the place of the odd?" Now to him
who makes this objection, we cannot answer that the odd principle
is imperishable; for this has not been acknowledged, but if this
had been acknowledged, there would have been no difficulty in
contending that at the approach of the even the odd principle and
the number three took up their departure; and the same argument
would have held good of fire and heat and any other thing.
And the same may be said of the immortal: if the immortal is also
imperishable, then the soul will be imperishable as well as
immortal; but if not, some other proof of her imperishableness
will have to be given.
No other proof is needed, he said; for if the immortal, being
eternal, is liable to perish, then nothing is imperishable.
Yes, replied Socrates, all men will agree that God, and the
essential form of life, and the immortal in general, will never
Yes, all men, he said-that is true; and what is more, gods, if I
am not mistaken, as well as men.
Seeing then that the immortal is indestructible, must not the
soul, if she is immortal, be also imperishable?
Then when death attacks a man, the mortal portion of him may be
supposed to die, but the immortal goes out of the way of death
and is preserved safe and sound?
Then, Cebes, beyond question the soul is immortal and
imperishable, and our souls will truly exist in another world!
I am convinced, Socrates, said Cebes, and have nothing more to
object; but if my friend Simmias, or anyone else, has any further
objection, he had better speak out, and not keep silence, since I
do not know how there can ever be a more fitting time to which he
can defer the discussion, if there is anything which he wants to
say or have said.
But I have nothing more to say, replied Simmias; nor do I see any
room for uncertainty, except that which arises necessarily out of
the greatness of the subject and the feebleness of man, and which
I cannot help feeling.
Yes, Simmias, replied Socrates, that is well said: and more than
that, first principles, even if they appear certain, should be
carefully considered; and when they are satisfactorily
ascertained, then, with a sort of hesitating confidence in human
reason, you may, I think, follow the course of the argument; and
if this is clear, there will be no need for any further inquiry.
That, he said, is true.
But then, O my friends, he said, if the soul is really immortal,
what care should be taken of her, not only in respect of the
portion of time which is called life, but of eternity! And the
danger of neglecting her from this point of view does indeed
appear to be awful. If death had only been the end of all, the
wicked would have had a good bargain in dying, for they would
have been happily quit not only of their body, but of their own
evil together with their souls. But now, as the soul plainly
appears to be immortal, there is no release or salvation from
evil except the attainment of the highest virtue and wisdom. For
the soul when on her progress to the world below takes nothing
with her but nurture and education; which are indeed said greatly
to benefit or greatly to injure the departed, at the very
beginning of its pilgrimage in the other world.
For after death, as they say, the genius of each individual, to
whom he belonged in life, leads him to a certain place in which
the dead are gathered together for judgment, whence they go into
the world below, following the guide who is appointed to conduct
them from this world to the other: and when they have there
received their due and remained their time, another guide brings
them back again after many revolutions of ages. Now this journey
to the other world is not, as Aeschylus says in the "Telephus,"
a single and straight path-no guide would be wanted for that, and
no one could miss a single path; but there are many partings of
the road, and windings, as I must infer from the rites and
sacrifices which are offered to the gods below in places where
three ways meet on earth. The wise and orderly soul is conscious
of her situation and follows in the path; but the soul which
desires the body, and which, as I was relating before, has long
been fluttering about the lifeless frame and the world of sight,
is after many struggles and many sufferings hardly and with
violence carried away by her attendant genius, and when she
arrives at the place where the other souls are gathered, if she
be impure and have done impure deeds, or been concerned in foul
murders or other crimes which are the brothers of these, and the
works of brothers in crime-from that soul everyone flees and
turns away; no one will be her companion, no one her guide, but
alone she wanders in extremity of evil until certain times are
fulfilled, and when they are fulfilled, she is borne irresistibly
to her own fitting habitation; as every pure and just soul which
has passed through life in the company and under the guidance of
the gods has also her own proper home.
Now the earth has divers wonderful regions, and is indeed in
nature and extent very unlike the notions of geographers, as I
believe on the authority of one who shall be nameless.
What do you mean, Socrates? said Simmias. I have myself heard
many descriptions of the earth, but I do not know in what you are
putting your faith, and I should like to know.
Well, Simmias, replied Socrates, the recital of a tale does not,
I think, require the art of Glaucus; and I know not that the art
of Glaucus could prove the truth of my tale, which I myself
should never be able to prove, and even if I could, I fear,
Simmias, that my life would come to an end before the argument
was completed. I may describe to you, however, the form and
regions of the earth according to my conception of them.
That, said Simmias, will be enough.
Well, then, he said, my conviction is that the earth is a round
body in the center of the heavens, and therefore has no need of
air or any similar force as a support, but is kept there and
hindered from falling or inclining any way by the equability of
the surrounding heaven and by her own equipoise. For that which,
being in equipoise, is in the center of that which is equably
diffused, will not incline any way in any degree, but will always
remain in the same state and not deviate. And this is my first
Which is surely a correct one, said Simmias.
Also I believe that the earth is very vast, and that we who dwell
in the region extending from the river Phasis to the Pillars of
Heracles, along the borders of the sea, are just like ants or
frogs about a marsh, and inhabit a small portion only, and that
many others dwell in many like places. For I should say that in
all parts of the earth there are hollows of various forms and
sizes, into which the water and the mist and the air collect; and
that the true earth is pure and in the pure heaven, in which also
are the stars-that is the heaven which is commonly spoken of as
the ether, of which this is but the sediment collecting in the
hollows of the earth. But we who live in these hollows are
deceived into the notion that we are dwelling above on the
surface of the earth; which is just as if a creature who was at
the bottom of the sea were to fancy that he was on the surface of
the water, and that the sea was the heaven through which he saw
the sun and the other stars-he having never come to the surface
by reason of his feebleness and sluggishness, and having never
lifted up his head and seen, nor ever heard from one who had
seen, this region which is so much purer and fairer than his own.
Now this is exactly our case: for we are dwelling in a hollow of
the earth, and fancy that we are on the surface; and the air we
call the heaven, and in this we imagine that the stars move. But
this is also owing to our feebleness and sluggishness, which
prevent our reaching the surface of the air: for if any man could
arrive at the exterior limit, or take the wings of a bird and fly
upward, like a fish who puts his head out and sees this world, he
would see a world beyond; and, if the nature of man could sustain
the sight, he would acknowledge that this was the place of the
true heaven and the true light and the true stars. For this
earth, and the stones, and the entire region which surrounds us,
are spoilt and corroded, like the things in the sea which are
corroded by the brine; for in the sea too there is hardly any
noble or perfect growth, but clefts only, and sand, and an
endless slough of mud: and even the shore is not to be compared
to the fairer sights of this world. And greater far is the
superiority of the other. Now of that upper earth which is under
the heaven, I can tell you a charming tale, Simmias, which is
well worth hearing.
And we, Socrates, replied Simmias, shall be charmed to listen.
The tale, my friend, he said, is as follows: In the first place,
the earth, when looked at from above, is like one of those balls
which have leather coverings in twelve pieces, and is of divers
colors, of which the colors which painters use on earth are only
a sample. But there the whole earth is made up of them, and they
are brighter far and clearer than ours; there is a purple of
wonderful luster, also the radiance of gold, and the white which
is in the earth is whiter than any chalk or snow. Of these and
other colors the earth is made up, and they are more in number
and fairer than the eye of man has ever seen; and the very
hollows (of which I was speaking) filled with air and water are
seen like light flashing amid the other colors, and have a color
of their own, which gives a sort of unity to the variety of earth.
And in this fair region everything that grows-trees, and flowers,
and fruits-is in a like degree fairer than any here; and there
are hills, and stones in them in a like degree smoother, and more
transparent, and fairer in color than our highly valued emeralds
and sardonyxes and jaspers, and other gems, which are but minute
fragments of them: for there all the stones are like our precious
stones, and fairer still. The reason of this is that they are
pure, and not, like our precious stones, infected or corroded by
the corrupt briny elements which coagulate among us, and which
breed foulness and disease both in earth and stones, as well as
in animals and plants. They are the jewels of the upper earth,
which also shines with gold and silver and the like, and they are
visible to sight and large and abundant and found in every region
of the earth, and blessed is he who sees them. And upon the earth
are animals and men, some in a middle region, others dwelling
about the air as we dwell about the sea; others in islands which
the air flows round, near the continent: and in a word, the air
is used by them as the water and the sea are by us, and the ether
is to them what the air is to us. Moreover, the temperament of
their seasons is such that they have no disease, and live much
longer than we do, and have sight and hearing and smell, and all
the other senses, in far greater perfection, in the same degree
that air is purer than water or the ether than air. Also they
have temples and sacred places in which the gods really dwell,
and they hear their voices and receive their answers, and are
conscious of them and hold converse with them, and they see the
sun, moon, and stars as they really are, and their other
blessedness is of a piece with this.
Such is the nature of the whole earth, and of the things which
are around the earth; and there are divers regions in the hollows
on the face of the globe everywhere, some of them deeper and also
wider than that which we inhabit, others deeper and with a
narrower opening than ours, and some are shallower and wider; all
have numerous perforations, and passages broad and narrow in the
interior of the earth, connecting them with one another; and
there flows into and out of them, as into basins, a vast tide of
water, and huge subterranean streams of perennial rivers, and
springs hot and cold, and a great fire, and great rivers of fire,
and streams of liquid mud, thin or thick (like the rivers of mud
in Sicily, and the lava-streams which follow them), and the
regions about which they happen to flow are filled up with them.
And there is a sort of swing in the interior of the earth which
moves all this up and down. Now the swing is in this wise: There
is a chasm which is the vastest of them all, and pierces right
through the whole earth; this is that which Homer describes in
"Far off, where is the inmost depth beneath the earth";
and which he in other places, and many other poets, have called
Tartarus. And the swing is caused by the streams flowing into and
out of this chasm, and they each have the nature of the soil
through which they flow. And the reason why the streams are
always flowing in and out is that the watery element has no bed
or bottom, and is surging and swinging up and down, and the
surrounding wind and air do the same; they follow the water up
and down, hither and thither, over the earth-just as in respiring
the air is always in process of inhalation and exhalation; and
the wind swinging with the water in and out produces fearful and
irresistible blasts: when the waters retire with a rush into the
lower parts of the earth, as they are called, they flow through
the earth into those regions, and fill them up as with the
alternate motion of a pump, and then when they leave those
regions and rush back hither, they again fill the hollows here,
and when these are filled, flow through subterranean channels and
find their way to their several places, forming seas, and lakes,
and rivers, and springs. Thence they again enter the earth, some
of them making a long circuit into many lands, others going to
few places and those not distant, and again fall into Tartarus,
some at a point a good deal lower than that at which they rose,
and others not much lower, but all in some degree lower than the
point of issue. And some burst forth again on the opposite side,
and some on the same side, and some wind round the earth with one
or many folds, like the coils of a serpent, and descend as far as
they can, but always return and fall into the lake. The rivers on
either side can descend only to the center and no further, for to
the rivers on both sides the opposite side is a precipice.
Now these rivers are many, and mighty, and diverse, and there are
four principal ones, of which the greatest and outermost is that
called Oceanus, which flows round the earth in a circle; and in
the opposite direction flows Acheron, which passes under the
earth through desert places, into the Acherusian Lake: this is
the lake to the shores of which the souls of the many go when
they are dead, and after waiting an appointed time, which is to
some a longer and to some a shorter time, they are sent back
again to be born as animals. The third river rises between the
two, and near the place of rising pours into a vast region of
fire, and forms a lake larger than the Mediterranean Sea, boiling
with water and mud; and proceeding muddy and turbid, and winding
about the earth, comes, among other places, to the extremities of
the Acherusian Lake, but mingles not with the waters of the lake,
and after making many coils about the earth plunges into Tartarus
at a deeper level. This is that Pyriphlegethon, as the stream is
called, which throws up jets of fire in all sorts of places. The
fourth river goes out on the opposite side, and falls first of
all into a wild and savage region, which is all of a dark-blue
color, like lapis lazuli; and this is that river which is called
the Stygian River, and falls into and forms the Lake Styx, and
after falling into the lake and receiving strange powers in the
waters, passes under the earth, winding round in the opposite
direction to Pyriphlegethon, and meeting in the Acherusian Lake
from the opposite side. And the water of this river too mingles
with no other, but flows round in a circle and falls into
Tartarus over against Pyriphlegethon, and the name of this river,
as the poet says, is Cocytus.
Such is the name of the other world; and when the dead arrive at
the place to which the genius of each severally conveys them,
first of all they have sentence passed upon them, as they have
lived well and piously or not. And those who appear to have lived
neither well nor ill, go to the river Acheron, and mount such
conveyances as they can get, and are carried in them to the lake,
and there they dwell and are purified of their evil deeds, and
suffer the penalty of the wrongs which they have done to others,
and are absolved, and receive the rewards of their good deeds
according to their deserts. But those who appear to be incurable
by reason of the greatness of their crimes-who have committed
many and terrible deeds of sacrilege, murders foul and violent,
or the like-such are hurled into Tartarus, which is their
suitable destiny, and they never come out. Those again who have
committed crimes, which, although great, are not unpardonable-who
in a moment of anger, for example, have done violence to a father
or mother, and have repented for the remainder of their lives, or
who have taken the life of another under like extenuating
circumstances-these are plunged into Tartarus, the pains of which
they are compelled to undergo for a year, but at the end of the
year the wave casts them forth-mere homicides by way of Cocytus,
parricides and matricides by Pyriphlegethon-and they are borne to
the Acherusian Lake, and there they lift up their voices and call
upon the victims whom they have slain or wronged, to have pity on
them, and to receive them, and to let them come out of the river
into the lake. And if they prevail, then they come forth and
cease from their troubles; but if not, they are carried back
again into Tartarus and from thence into the rivers unceasingly,
until they obtain mercy from those whom they have wronged: for
that is the sentence inflicted upon them by their judges. Those
also who are remarkable for having led holy lives are released
from this earthly prison, and go to their pure home which is
above, and dwell in the purer earth; and those who have duly
purified themselves with philosophy live henceforth altogether
without the body, in mansions fairer far than these, which may
not be described, and of which the time would fail me to tell.
Wherefore, Simmias, seeing all these things, what ought not we to
do in order to obtain virtue and wisdom in this life? Fair is the
prize, and the hope great.
I do not mean to affirm that the description which I have given
of the soul and her mansions is exactly true-a man of sense ought
hardly to say that. But I do say that, inasmuch as the soul is
shown to be immortal, he may venture to think, not improperly or
unworthily, that something of the kind is true. The venture is a
glorious one, and he ought to comfort himself with words like
these, which is the reason why lengthen out the tale. Wherefore,
I say, let a man be of good cheer about his soul, who has cast
away the pleasures and ornaments of the body as alien to him, and
rather hurtful in their effects, and has followed after the
pleasures of knowledge in this life; who has adorned the soul in
her own proper jewels, which are temperance, and justice, and
courage, and nobility, and truth-in these arrayed she is ready to
go on her journey to the world below, when her time comes. You,
Simmias and Cebes, and all other men, will depart at some time or
other. Me already, as the tragic poet would say, the voice of
fate calls. Soon I must drink the poison; and I think that I had
better repair to the bath first, in order that the women may not
have the trouble of washing my body after I am dead.
When he had done speaking, Crito said: And have you any commands
for us, Socrates-anything to say about your children, or any
other matter in which we can serve you?
Nothing particular, he said: only, as I have always told you, I
would have you look to yourselves; that is a service which you
may always be doing to me and mine as well as to yourselves. And
you need not make professions; for if you take no thought for
yourselves, and walk not according to the precepts which I have
given you, not now for the first time, the warmth of your
professions will be of no avail.
We will do our best, said Crito. But in what way would you have
us bury you?
In any way that you like; only you must get hold of me, and take
care that I do not walk away from you. Then he turned to us, and
added with a smile: I cannot make Crito believe that I am the
same Socrates who have been talking and conducting the argument;
he fancies that I am the other Socrates whom he will soon see, a
dead body-and he asks, How shall he bury me? And though I have
spoken many words in the endeavor to show that when I have drunk
the poison I shall leave you and go to the joys of the blessed-these
words of mine, with which I comforted you and myself, have had, I
perceive, no effect upon Crito. And therefore I want you to be
surety for me now, as he was surety for me at the trial: but let
the promise be of another sort; for he was my surety to the
judges that I would remain, but you must be my surety to him that
I shall not remain, but go away and depart; and then he will
suffer less at my death, and not be grieved when he sees my body
being burned or buried. I would not have him sorrow at my hard
lot, or say at the burial, Thus we lay out Socrates, or, Thus we
follow him to the grave or bury him; for false words are not only
evil in themselves, but they infect the soul with evil. Be of
good cheer, then, my dear Crito, and say that you are burying my
body only, and do with that as is usual, and as you think best.
When he had spoken these words, he arose and went into the bath
chamber with Crito, who bade us wait; and we waited, talking and
thinking of the subject of discourse, and also of the greatness
of our sorrow; he was like a father of whom we were being
bereaved, and we were about to pass the rest of our lives as
orphans. When he had taken the bath his children were brought to
him-(he had two young sons and an elder one); and the women of
his family also came, and he talked to them and gave them a few
directions in the presence of Crito; and he then dismissed them
and returned to us.
Now the hour of sunset was near, for a good deal of time had
passed while he was within. When he came out, he sat down with us
again after his bath, but not much was said. Soon the jailer, who
was the servant of the Eleven, entered and stood by him, saying:
To you, Socrates, whom I know to be the noblest and gentlest and
best of all who ever came to this place, I will not impute the
angry feelings of other men, who rage and swear at me when, in
obedience to the authorities, I bid them drink the poison-indeed,
I am sure that you will not be angry with me; for others, as you
are aware, and not I, are the guilty cause. And so fare you well,
and try to bear lightly what must needs be; you know my errand.
Then bursting into tears he turned away and went out.
Socrates looked at him and said: I return your good wishes, and
will do as you bid. Then, turning to us, he said, How charming
the man is: since I have been in prison he has always been coming
to see me, and at times he would talk to me, and was as good as
could be to me, and now see how generously he sorrows for me. But
we must do as he says, Crito; let the cup be brought, if the
poison is prepared: if not, let the attendant prepare some.
Yet, said Crito, the sun is still upon the hilltops, and many a
one has taken the draught late, and after the announcement has
been made to him, he has eaten and drunk, and indulged in sensual
delights; do not hasten then, there is still time.
Socrates said: Yes, Crito, and they of whom you speak are right
in doing thus, for they think that they will gain by the delay;
but I am right in not doing thus, for I do not think that I
should gain anything by drinking the poison a little later; I
should be sparing and saving a life which is already gone: I
could only laugh at myself for this. Please then to do as I say,
and not to refuse me.
Crito, when he heard this, made a sign to the servant, and the
servant went in, and remained for some time, and then returned
with the jailer carrying a cup of poison. Socrates said: You, my
good friend, who are experienced in these matters, shall give me
directions how I am to proceed. The man answered: You have only
to walk about until your legs are heavy, and then to lie down,
and the poison will act. At the same time he handed the cup to
Socrates, who in the easiest and gentlest manner, without the
least fear or change of color or feature, looking at the man with
all his eyes, Echecrates, as his manner was, took the cup and
said: What do you say about making a libation out of this cup to
any god? May I, or not? The man answered: We only prepare,
Socrates, just so much as we deem enough. I understand, he said:
yet I may and must pray to the gods to prosper my journey from
this to that other world-may this, then, which is my prayer, be
granted to me. Then holding the cup to his lips, quite readily
and cheerfully he drank off the poison. And hitherto most of us
had been able to control our sorrow; but now when we saw him
drinking, and saw too that he had finished the draught, we could
no longer forbear, and in spite of myself my own tears were
flowing fast; so that I covered my face and wept over myself, for
certainly I was not weeping over him, but at the thought of my
own calamity in having lost such a companion. Nor was I the
first, for Crito, when he found himself unable to restrain his
tears, had got up and moved away, and I followed; and at that
moment. Apollodorus, who had been weeping all the time, broke out
in a loud cry which made cowards of us all. Socrates alone
retained his calmness: What is this strange outcry? he said. I
sent away the women mainly in order that they might not offend in
this way, for I have heard that a man should die in peace. Be
quiet, then, and have patience.
When we heard that, we were ashamed, and refrained our tears; and
he walked about until, as he said, his legs began to fail, and
then he lay on his back, according to the directions, and the man
who gave him the poison now and then looked at his feet and legs;
and after a while he pressed his foot hard and asked him if he
could feel; and he said, no; and then his leg, and so upwards and
upwards, and showed us that he was cold and stiff. And he felt
them himself, and said: When the poison reaches the heart, that
will be the end. He was beginning to grow cold about the groin,
when he uncovered his face, for he had covered himself up, and
said (they were his last words)-he said: Crito, I owe a cock to
Asclepius; will you remember to pay the debt? The debt shall be
paid, said Crito; is there anything else? There was no answer to
this question; but in a minute or two a movement was heard, and
the attendants uncovered him; his eyes were set, and Crito closed
his eyes and mouth.
Such was the end, Echecrates, of our friend, whom I may truly
call the wisest, and justest, and best of all the men whom I have
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