translated by Benjamin Jowett
PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE:
[Socrates] Welcome, Ion. Are you from your native city of
[Ion] No, Socrates; but from Epidaurus, where I attended the
festival of Asclepius.
[Soc.] And do the Epidaurians have contests of rhapsodes at
[Ion] O yes; and of all sorts of musical performers.
[Soc.] And were you one of the competitors- and did you
[Ion] I obtained the first prize of all, Socrates.
[Soc.] Well done; and I hope that you will do the same for us
at the Panathenaea.
[Ion] And I will, please heaven.
[Soc.] I often envy the profession of a rhapsode, Ion; for you
have always to wear fine clothes, and to look as beautiful as you
can is a part of your art. Then, again, you are obliged to be
continually in the company of many good poets; and especially of
Homer, who is the best and most divine of them; and to understand
him, and not merely learn his words by rote, is a thing greatly
to be envied. And no man can be a rhapsode who does not
understand the meaning of the poet. For the rhapsode ought to
interpret the mind of the poet to his hearers, but how can he
interpret him well unless he knows what he means? All this is
greatly to be envied.
[Ion] Very true, Socrates; interpretation has certainly been
the most laborious part of my art; and I believe myself able to
speak about Homer better than any man; and that neither
Metrodorus of Lampsacus, nor Stesimbrotus of Thasos, nor Glaucon,
nor any one else who ever was, had as good ideas about Homer as I
have, or as many.
[Soc.] I am glad to hear you say so, Ion; I see that you will
not refuse to acquaint me with them.
[Ion] Certainly, Socrates; and you really ought to hear how
exquisitely I render Homer. I think that the Homeridae should
give me a golden crown.
[Soc.] I shall take an opportunity of hearing your
embellishments of him at some other time. But just now I should
like to ask you a question: Does your art extend to Hesiod and
Archilochus, or to Homer only?
[Ion] To Homer only; he is in himself quite enough.
[Soc.] Are there any things about which Homer and Hesiod
[Ion] Yes; in my opinion there are a good many.
[Soc.] And can you interpret better what Homer says, or what
Hesiod says, about these matters in which they agree?
[Ion] I can interpret them equally well, Socrates, where they
[Soc.] But what about matters in which they do not agree?- for
example, about divination, of which both Homer and Hesiod have
something to say-
[Ion] Very true:
[Soc.] Would you or a good prophet be a better interpreter of
what these two poets say about divination, not only when they
agree, but when they disagree?
[Ion] A prophet.
[Soc.] And if you were a prophet, would you be able to
interpret them when they disagree as well as when they agree?
[Soc.] But how did you come to have this skill about Homer
only, and not about Hesiod or the other poets? Does not Homer
speak of the same themes which all other poets handle? Is not war
his great argument? and does he not speak of human society and of
intercourse of men, good and bad, skilled and unskilled, and of
the gods conversing with one another and with mankind, and about
what happens in heaven and in the world below, and the
generations of gods and heroes? Are not these the themes of which
[Ion] Very true, Socrates.
[Soc.] And do not the other poets sing of the same?
[Ion] Yes, Socrates; but not in the same way as Homer.
[Soc.] What, in a worse way?
[Ion] Yes, in a far worse.
[Soc.] And Homer in a better way?
[Ion] He is incomparably better.
[Soc.] And yet surely, my dear friend Ion, in a discussion
about arithmetic, where many people are speaking, and one speaks
better than the rest, there is somebody who can judge which of
them is the good speaker?
[Soc.] And he who judges of the good will be the same as he
who judges of the bad speakers?
[Ion] The same.
[Soc.] And he will be the arithmetician?
[Soc.] Well, and in discussions about the wholesomeness of
food, when many persons are speaking, and one speaks better than
the rest, will he who recognizes the better speaker be a
different person from him who recognizes the worse, or the same?
[Ion] Clearly the same.
[Soc.] And who is he, and what is his name?
[Ion] The physician.
[Soc.] And speaking generally, in all discussions in which the
subject is the same and many men are speaking, will not he who
knows the good know the bad speaker also? For if he does not know
the bad, neither will he know the good when the same topic is
[Soc.] Is not the same person skilful in both?
[Soc.] And you say that Homer and the other poets, such as
Hesiod and Archilochus, speak of the same things, although not in
the same way; but the one speaks well and the other not so well?
[Ion] Yes; and I am right in saying so.
[Soc.] And if you knew the good speaker, you would also know
the inferior speakers to be inferior?
[Ion] That is true.
[Soc.] Then, my dear friend, can I be mistaken in saying that
Ion is equally skilled in Homer and in other poets, since he
himself acknowledges that the same person will be a good judge of
all those who speak of the same things; and that almost all poets
do speak of the same things?
[Ion] Why then, Socrates, do I lose attention and go to sleep
and have absolutely no ideas of the least value, when any one
speaks of any other poet; but when Homer is mentioned, I wake up
at once and am all attention and have plenty to say?
[Soc.] The reason, my friend, is obvious. No one can fail to
see that you speak of Homer without any art or knowledge. If you
were able to speak of him by rules of art, you would have been
able to speak of all other poets; for poetry is a whole.
[Soc.] And when any one acquires any other art as a whole, the
same may be said of them. Would you like me to explain my
[Ion] Yes, indeed, Socrates; I very much wish that you would:
for I love to hear you wise men talk.
[Soc.] O that we were wise, Ion, and that you could truly call
us so; but you rhapsodes and actors, and the poets whose verses
you sing, are wise; whereas I am a common man, who only speak the
truth. For consider what a very commonplace and trivial thing is
this which I have said- a thing which any man might say: that
when a man has acquired a knowledge of a whole art, the enquiry
into good and bad is one and the same. Let us consider this
matter; is not the art of painting a whole?
[Soc.] And there are and have been many painters good and bad?
[Soc.] And did you ever know any one who was skilful in
pointing out the excellences and defects of Polygnotus the son of
Aglaophon, but incapable of criticizing other painters; and when
the work of any other painter was produced, went to sleep and was
at a loss, and had no ideas; but when he had to give his opinion
about Polygnotus, or whoever the painter might be, and about him
only, woke up and was attentive and had plenty to say?
[Ion] No indeed, I have never known such a person.
[Soc.] Or did you ever know of any one in sculpture, who was
skilful in expounding the merits of Daedalus the son of Metion,
or of Epeius the son of Panopeus, or of Theodorus the Samian, or
of any individual sculptor; but when the works of sculptors in
general were produced, was at a loss and went to sleep and had
nothing to say?
[Ion] No indeed; no more than the other.
[Soc.] And if I am not mistaken, you never met with any one
among flute-players or harp- players or singers to the harp or
rhapsodes who was able to discourse of Olympus or Thamyras or
Orpheus, or Phemius the rhapsode of Ithaca, but was at a loss
when he came to speak of Ion of Ephesus, and had no notion of his
merits or defects?
[Ion] I cannot deny what you say, Socrates. Nevertheless I am
conscious in my own self, and the world agrees with me in
thinking that I do speak better and have more to say about Homer
than any other man. But I do not speak equally well about others-
tell me the reason of this.
[Soc.] I perceive, Ion; and I will proceed to explain to you
what I imagine to be the reason of this. The gift which you
possess of speaking excellently about Homer is not an art, but,
as I was just saying, an inspiration; there is a divinity moving
you, like that contained in the stone which Euripides calls a
magnet, but which is commonly known as the stone of Heraclea.
This stone not only attracts iron rings, but also imparts to them
a similar power of attracting other rings; and sometimes you may
see a number of pieces of iron and rings suspended from one
another so as to form quite a long chain: and all of them derive
their power of suspension from the original stone. In like manner
the Muse first of all inspires men herself; and from these
inspired persons a chain of other persons is suspended, who take
the inspiration. For all good poets, epic as well as lyric,
compose their beautiful poems not by art, but because they are
inspired and possessed. And as the Corybantian revellers when
they dance are not in their right mind, so the lyric poets are
not in their right mind when they are composing their beautiful
strains: but when falling under the power of music and metre they
are inspired and possessed; like Bacchic maidens who draw milk
and honey from the rivers when they are under the influence of
Dionysus but not when they are in their right mind. And the soul
of the lyric poet does the same, as they themselves say; for they
tell us that they bring songs from honeyed fountains, culling
them out of the gardens and dells of the Muses; they, like the
bees, winging their way from flower to flower. And this is true.
For the poet is a light and winged and holy thing, and there is
no invention in him until he has been inspired and is out of his
senses, and the mind is no longer in him: when he has not
attained to this state, he is powerless and is unable to utter
Many are the noble words in which poets speak concerning the
actions of men; but like yourself when speaking about Homer, they
do not speak of them by any rules of art: they are simply
inspired to utter that to which the Muse impels them, and that
only; and when inspired, one of them will make dithyrambs,
another hymns of praise, another choral strains, another epic or
iambic verses- and he who is good at one is not good any other
kind of verse: for not by art does the poet sing, but by power
divine. Had he learned by rules of art, he would have known how
to speak not of one theme only, but of all; and therefore God
takes away the minds of poets, and uses them as his ministers, as
he also uses diviners and holy prophets, in order that we who
hear them may know them to be speaking not of themselves who
utter these priceless words in a state of unconsciousness, but
that God himself is the speaker, and that through them he is
conversing with us. And Tynnichus the Chalcidian affords a
striking instance of what I am saying: he wrote nothing that any
one would care to remember but the famous paean which; in every
one's mouth, one of the finest poems ever written, simply an
invention of the Muses, as he himself says. For in this way, the
God would seem to indicate to us and not allow us to doubt that
these beautiful poems are not human, or the work of man, but
divine and the work of God; and that the poets are only the
interpreters of the Gods by whom they are severally possessed.
Was not this the lesson which the God intended to teach when by
the mouth of the worst of poets he sang the best of songs? Am I
not right, Ion?
[Ion] Yes, indeed, Socrates, I feel that you are; for your
words touch my soul, and I am persuaded that good poets by a
divine inspiration interpret the things of the Gods to us.
[Soc.] And you rhapsodists are the interpreters of the poets?
[Ion] There again you are right.
[Soc.] Then you are the interpreters of interpreters?
[Soc.] I wish you would frankly tell me, Ion, what I am going
to ask of you: When you produce the greatest effect upon the
audience in the recitation of some striking passage, such as the
apparition of Odysseus leaping forth on the floor, recognized by
the suitors and casting his arrows at his feet, or the
description of Achilles rushing at Hector, or the sorrows of
Andromache, Hecuba, or Priam,- are you in your right mind? Are
you not carried out of yourself, and does not your soul in an
ecstasy seem to be among the persons or places of which you are
speaking, whether they are in Ithaca or in Troy or whatever may
be the scene of the poem?
[Ion] That proof strikes home to me, Socrates. For I must
frankly confess that at the tale of pity, my eyes are filled with
tears, and when I speak of horrors, my hair stands on end and my
[Soc.] Well, Ion, and what are we to say of a man who at a
sacrifice or festival, when he is dressed in holiday attire and
has golden crowns upon his head, of which nobody has robbed him,
appears sweeping or panic-stricken in the presence of more than
twenty thousand friendly faces, when there is no one despoiling
or wronging him;- is he in his right mind or is he not?
[Ion] No indeed, Socrates, I must say that, strictly speaking,
he is not in his right mind.
[Soc.] And are you aware that you produce similar effects on
[Ion] Only too well; for I look down upon them from the stage,
and behold the various emotions of pity, wonder, sternness,
stamped upon their countenances when I am speaking: and I am
obliged to give my very best attention to them; for if I make
them cry I myself shall laugh, and if I make them laugh I myself
shall cry when the time of payment arrives.
[Soc.] Do you know that the spectator is the last of the rings
which, as I am saying, receive the power of the original magnet
from one another? The rhapsode like yourself and the actor are
intermediate links, and the poet himself is the first of them.
Through all these the God sways the souls of men in any direction
which he pleases, and makes one man hang down from another. Thus
there is a vast chain of dancers and masters and undermasters of
choruses, who are suspended, as if from the stone, at the side of
the rings which hang down from the Muse. And every poet has some
Muse from whom he is suspended, and by whom he is said to be
possessed, which is nearly the same thing; for he is taken hold
of. And from these first rings, which are the poets, depend
others, some deriving their inspiration from Orpheus, others from
Musaeus; but the greater number are possessed and held by Homer.
Of whom, Ion, you are one, and are possessed by Homer; and when
any one repeats the words of another poet you go to sleep, and
know not what to say; but when any one recites a strain of Homer
you wake up in a moment, and your soul leaps within you, and you
have plenty to say; for not by art or knowledge about Homer do
you say what you say, but by divine inspiration and by
possession; just as the Corybantian revellers too have a quick
perception of that strain only which is appropriated to the God
by whom they are possessed, and have plenty of dances and words
for that, but take no heed of any other. And you, Ion, when the
name of Homer is mentioned have plenty to say, and have nothing
to say of others. You ask, "Why is this?" The answer is
that you praise Homer not by art but by divine inspiration.
[Ion] That is good, Socrates; and yet I doubt whether you will
ever have eloquence enough to persuade me that I praise Homer
only when I am mad and possessed; and if you could hear me speak
of him I am sure you would never think this to be the case.
[Soc.] I should like very much to hear you, but not until you
have answered a question which I have to ask. On what part of
Homer do you speak well?- not surely about every part.
[Ion] There is no part, Socrates, about which I do not speak
well of that I can assure you.
[Soc.] Surely not about things in Homer of which you have no
[Ion] And what is there in Homer of which I have no knowledge?
[Soc.] Why, does not Homer speak in many passages about arts?
For example, about driving; if I can only remember the lines I
will repeat them.
[Ion] I remember, and will repeat them.
[Soc.] Tell me then, what Nestor says to Antilochus, his son,
where he bids him be careful of the turn at the horse-race in
honour of Patroclus.
[Ion] He says: Bend gently in the polished chariot to the left
of them, and urge the horse on the right hand with whip and
voice; and slacken the rein. And when you are at the goal, let
the left horse draw near, yet so that the nave of the well-wrought
wheel may not even seem to touch the extremity; and avoid
catching the stone.
[Soc.] Enough. Now, Ion, will the charioteer or the physician
be the better judge of the propriety of these lines?
[Ion] The charioteer, clearly.
[Soc.] And will the reason be that this is his art, or will
there be any other reason?
[Ion] No, that will be the reason.
[Soc.] And every art is appointed by God to have knowledge of
a certain work; for that which we know by the art of the pilot we
do not know by the art of medicine?
[Ion] Certainly not.
[Soc.] Nor do we know by the art of the carpenter that which
we know by the art of medicine?
[Ion] Certainly not.
[Soc.] And this is true of all the arts;- that which we know
with one art we do not know with the other? But let me ask a
prior question: You admit that there are differences of arts?
[Soc.] You would argue, as I should, that when one art is of
one kind of knowledge and another of another, they are different?
[Soc.] Yes, surely; for if the subject of knowledge were the
same, there would be no meaning in saying that the arts were
different,- if they both gave the same knowledge. For example, I
know that here are five fingers, and you know the same. And if I
were to ask whether I and you became acquainted with this fact by
the help of the same art of arithmetic, you would acknowledge
that we did?
[Soc.] Tell me, then, what I was intending to ask you- whether
this holds universally? Must the same art have the same subject
of knowledge, and different arts other subjects of knowledge?
[Ion] That is my opinion, Socrates.
[Soc.] Then he who has no knowledge of a particular art will
have no right judgment of the sayings and doings of that art?
[Ion] Very true.
[Soc.] Then which will be a better judge of the lines which
you were reciting from Homer, you or the charioteer?
[Ion] The charioteer.
[Soc.] Why, yes, because you are a rhapsode and not a
[Soc.] And the art of the rhapsode is different from that of
[Soc.] And if a different knowledge, then a knowledge of
[Soc.] You know the passage in which Hecamede, the concubine
of Nestor, is described as giving to the wounded Machaon a
posset, as he says, Made with Pramnian wine; and she grated
cheese of goat's milk with a grater of bronze, and at his side
placed an onion which gives a relish to drink. Now would you say
that the art of the rhapsode or the art of medicine was better
able to judge of the propriety of these lines?
[Ion] The art of medicine.
[Soc.] And when Homer says, And she descended into the deep
like a leaden plummet, which, set in the horn of ox that ranges
in the fields, rushes along carrying death among the ravenous
fishes,- will the art of the fisherman or of the rhapsode be
better able to judge whether these lines are rightly expressed or
[Ion] Clearly, Socrates, the art of the fisherman.
[Soc.] Come now, suppose that you were to say to me: "Since
you, Socrates, are able to assign different passages in Homer to
their corresponding arts, I wish that you would tell me what are
the passages of which the excellence ought to be judged by the
prophet and prophetic art"; and you will see how readily and
truly I shall answer you. For there are many such passages,
particularly in the Odyssey; as, for example, the passage in
which Theoclymenus the prophet of the house of Melampus says to
the suitors:- Wretched men! what is happening to you? Your heads
and your faces and your limbs underneath are shrouded in night;
and the voice of lamentation bursts forth, and your cheeks are
wet with tears. And the vestibule is full, and the court is full,
of ghosts descending into the darkness of Erebus, and the sun has
perished out of heaven, and an evil mist is spread abroad. And
there are many such passages in the Iliad also; as for example in
the description of the battle near the rampart, where he says:-
As they were eager to pass the ditch, there came to them an omen:
a soaring eagle, holding back the people on the left, bore a huge
bloody dragon in his talons, still living and panting; nor had he
yet resigned the strife, for he bent back and smote the bird
which carried him on the breast by the neck, and he in pain let
him fall from him to the ground into the midst of the multitude.
And the eagle, with a cry, was borne afar on the wings of the
wind. These are the sort of things which I should say that the
prophet ought to consider and determine.
[Ion] And you are quite right, Socrates, in saying so.
[Soc.] Yes, Ion, and you are right also. And as I have
selected from the Iliad and Odyssey for you passages which
describe the office of the prophet and the physician and the
fisherman, do you, who know Homer so much better than I do, Ion,
select for me passages which relate to the rhapsode and the
rhapsode's art, and which the rhapsode ought to examine and judge
of better than other men.
[Ion] All passages, I should say, Socrates.
[Soc.] Not all, Ion, surely. Have you already forgotten what
you were saying? A rhapsode ought to have a better memory.
[Ion] Why, what am I forgetting?
[Soc.] Do you not remember that you declared the art of the
rhapsode to be different from the art of the charioteer?
[Ion] Yes, I remember.
[Soc.] And you admitted that being different they would have
different subjects of knowledge?
[Soc.] Then upon your own showing the rhapsode, and the art of
the rhapsode, will not know everything?
[Ion] I should exclude certain things, Socrates.
[Soc.] You mean to say that you would exclude pretty much the
subjects of the other arts. As he does not know all of them,
which of them will he know?
[Ion] He will know what a man and what a woman ought to say,
and what a freeman and what a slave ought to say, and what a
ruler and what a subject.
[Soc.] Do you mean that a rhapsode will know better than the
pilot what the ruler of a sea-tossed vessel ought to say?
[Ion] No; the pilot will know best.
[Soc.] Or will the rhapsode know better than the physician
what the ruler of a sick man ought to say?
[Ion] He will not.
[Soc.] But he will know what a slave ought to say?
[Soc.] Suppose the slave to be a cowherd; the rhapsode will
know better than the cowherd what he ought to say in order to
soothe the infuriated cows?
[Ion] No, he will not.
[Soc.] But he will know what a spinning-woman ought to say
about the working of wool?
[Soc.] At any rate he will know what a general ought to say
when exhorting his soldiers?
[Ion] Yes, that is the sort of thing which the rhapsode will
be sure to know.
[Soc.] Well, but is the art of the rhapsode the art of the
[Ion] I am sure that I should know what a general ought to say.
[Soc.] Why, yes, Ion, because you may possibly have a
knowledge of the art of the general as well as of the rhapsode;
and you may also have a knowledge of horsemanship as well as of
the lyre: and then you would know when horses were well or ill
managed. But suppose I were to ask you: By the help of which art,
Ion, do you know whether horses are well managed, by your skill
as a horseman or as a performer on the lyre- what would you
[Ion] I should reply, by my skill as a horseman.
[Soc.] And if you judged of performers on the lyre, you would
admit that you judged of them as a performer on the lyre, and not
as a horseman?
[Soc.] And in judging of the general's art, do you judge of it
as a general or a rhapsode?
[Ion] To me there appears to be no difference between them.
[Soc.] What do you mean? Do you mean to say that the art of
the rhapsode and of the general is the same?
[Ion] Yes, one and the same.
[Soc.] Then he who is a good rhapsode is also a good general?
[Ion] Certainly, Socrates.
[Soc.] And he who is a good general is also a good rhapsode?
[Ion] No; I do not say that.
[Soc.] But you do say that he who is a good rhapsode is also a
[Soc.] And you are the best of Hellenic rhapsodes?
[Ion] Far the best, Socrates.
[Soc.] And are you the best general, Ion?
[Ion] To be sure, Socrates; and Homer was my master.
[Soc.] But then, Ion, what in the name of goodness can be the
reason why you, who are the best of generals as well as the best
of rhapsodes in all Hellas, go about as a rhapsode when you might
be a general? Do you think that the Hellenes want a rhapsode with
his golden crown, and do not want a general?
[Ion] Why, Socrates, the reason is, that my countrymen, the
Ephesians, are the servants and soldiers of Athens, and do not
need a general; and you and Sparta are not likely to have me, for
you think that you have enough generals of your own.
[Soc.] My good Ion, did you never hear of Apollodorus of
[Ion] Who may he be?
[Soc.] One who, though a foreigner, has often been chosen
their general by the Athenians: and there is Phanosthenes of
Andros, and Heraclides of Clazomenae, whom they have also
appointed to the command of their armies and to other offices,
although aliens, after they had shown their merit. And will they
not choose Ion the Ephesian to be their general, and honour him,
if he prove himself worthy? Were not the Ephesians originally
Athenians, and Ephesus is no mean city? But, indeed, Ion, if you
are correct in saying that by art and knowledge you are able to
praise Homer, you do not deal fairly with me, and after all your
professions of knowing many, glorious things about Homer, and
promises that you would exhibit them, you are only a deceiver,
and so far from exhibiting the art of which you are a master,
will not, even after my repeated entreaties, explain to me the
nature of it. You have literally as many forms as Proteus; and
now you go all manner of ways, twisting and turning, and, like
Proteus, become all manner of people at once, and at last slip
away from me in the disguise of a general, in order that you may
escape exhibiting your Homeric lore. And if you have art, then,
as I was saying, in falsifying your promise that you would
exhibit Homer, you are not dealing fairly with me. But if, as I
believe, you have no art, but speak all these beautiful words
about Homer unconsciously under his inspiring influence, then I
acquit you of dishonesty, and shall only say that you are
inspired. Which do you prefer to be thought, dishonest or
[Ion] There is a great difference, Socrates, between the two
alternatives; and inspiration is by far the nobler.
[Soc.] Then, Ion, I shall assume the nobler alternative; and
attribute to you in your praises of Homer inspiration, and not
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